Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Week 7 Samoa

What is meant by SIDS, MIRAB economies and SITES? List what you think are the main issues challenging such nations?


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  2. SIDS refers to Small Island Developing States (e.g. Samoa), which are low-lying coastal countries facing similar sustainable development challenges, such as access to limited resources thus dependency on imports, small populations and susceptibility to natural disasters.

    MIRAB economies refers to economies which evolve from colonial history, which have some dependency on migration remittances aid bureaucracy, thus aid of outside money to help the local economy.

    SITES refers to Small Island Tourist Economies, which are islands whose economies have become dependent on tourism. Tourism is the major generator of the local economy.

    Main issues facing such nations:
    - Lacking economies of scale, increases costs and difficulty of establishing infrastructure, healthcare per capita
    - Restricted access to resources (e.g. timber, minerals) due to location and isolation, which disadvantages such nations in comparison to other nations which are land and resource rich (e.g. oil in the Middle East). This increases dependency on imports and thus loss of money from the local economy
    - Natural disasters (e.g. tropical cyclones) and natural physical erosion, reducing productive and valuable land utilized to accommodate tourism on these islands
    - Increasing tension between traditional decision-making system and greater shift to Western systems

    Cassandra Ng

  3. SIDS means small island/coastal countries that are heavily dependent on international trade and vulnerable to global developments, remoteness, natural disasters and has a narrow resource base.
    MIRAB stands for migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy. This refers to economies that can depend on the immigrated population to send financial aid from overseas.
    SITES are small island tourist economies and uses tourism as a major contributor to their economy.
    Some of the main issues of these nations includes vulnerable economies, climate change adaptation and natural disasters coupled with environmental degradation, and inevitable retreat from sea level rise.

    Harry Choi

  4. SIDS is the acronym for Small Island Developing States, which are low-lying coastal countries that are dependent on overseas aid and international trade, and vulnerable to natural disasters such as cyclones.
    MIRAB economies, applicable to many ‘micro-economies’ of the South Pacific, refers to economies evolving from a colonial past which had become dependent upon migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy.
    SITES are small island tourist economies, which rely on tourism to be the major contributor to the local economy.
    Main issues facing such nations include climate change adaptation, natural disasters, vulnerable economies, and the increasing tension between traditional decision making custom and the western market system.


  5. SIDS stands for Small Island Development States and refers to low-lying coastal countries and islands with a small population and strong dependency on international trade due to its isolated physical location. Many distinctive features of these islands lead to a very different development pattern compare to the continental countries.

    MIRAB Economies refers the economic structure typical of many SIDS. The migration remittances aid bureaucracy means that a large proportion of money that supports local economy comes from overseas.

    An example of this is SITES (Small Island Tourist Economies) which refers to the economic structure that is essentially tourist-oriented.

    Some challenges these island nations face include climate change adaptation, competition between other SIDS and tension between traditional social and political structure and the western democratic system.

    Qiaochu Li

  6. Kate Richardson 5473245September 18, 2014 at 2:55 PM

    Small-Island-Development-States (SIDS's) have limited resources, no scale economy and are susceptible to natural disasters. Issues for SIDS include reliance on trade, a highly political environment, debt, corruption and inefficiency.

    MIRAB economies involve members of the population who have migrated sending a proportion of their income to their colonial home to keep the economy functioning. However this reliance means the economy is not sustainable.

    Small-Island-Tourist-Economies (SITES) focus on tourism to raise capital. Culture erosion, sea-level rise, pollution and storm events pose threat.
    Nations like Samoa fit into these categories and face the identified issues. Strong leadership and long-term planning is imperative.

    Kate Richardson 5473245

  7. SIDS are Small Island Development States. MIRAB economies refer to past colonial economies that depend on migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy: that refers to young people who left sending money back to the home state economy. SITES are Small Island Tourist Economies, which evolve to depend on tourism for significant amounts of their revenue.

    The issues faced include a lack of resources (minerals etc.) thus they rely on importing; dependency overseas aid; lack of economies of scale, which means administration costs etc. are more expensive; and also issues such as corruption, inefficient business practices, climate change, and tension between traditional and western governance processes.

    Sarah Burgess
    ID: 5316346

  8. SIDS= Small Island Developing States that have small resources, rely on imports and aid and are not self-sustaining.

    MIRAB economies have evolved after colonisation to become dependent on migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy. Most citizens live in other countries but make a significant contribution to local economies, the economy is dependent on aid and is bureaucratically top heavy.

    SITES: Small Island Tourist Economies are typical of SIDS, have often evolved from MIRAB economies to become tourist-oriented eg. Samoa gains 25% of their GDP from tourism.

    SIDS, that are remittance and aid, or tourism dependent, have unique vulnerabilities. They are small and isolated, have inadequate human and financial resources, and greater sensitivity to natural disasters. They lack economic diversity and economies of scale increasing their vulnerability. Most settlements and tourism are coastal which is vulnerable to erosion, flooding and landslides.

    So what will happen to a place like Samoa as the climate changes, sea level rises and cyclones intensify? Not only will the villages but significant GDP be wiped out as tourism declines. Despite 2014 being the United Nations year of the SIDS, even they haven’t begun to plan for this not so distant future, maybe it’s just too challenging to tackle!

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    1. SIDS – Small Island Development States are
      • Small, low lying coastal nations.
      • Prone to natural disasters (Tsunami).
      • Excessive dependence on imports due to lack of resources.

      MIRAB Economies – Migration, remittances, aid, bureaucracy
      • Economies derived from colonial past which are now dependent on immigration and financial aid from citizens living in other countries.

      SITES – Small Island Tourist Economies
      • Island nations whose main source of capital come from tourism (Vanuatu, Samoa).

      Issues facing these nations
      • Tourism usually coastal (risks with natural disasters).
      • Sea level rise with climate change.
      • Corruption within government (Fiji recent election rigged?).
      • Lack of resources.
      • Strategic planning and leadership.

      Nickolas James Renton - 4993863

  10. SIDS: Small Island Development States are low-lying coastal countries. The challenging issues are that these islands are susceptible to natural disasters, they are heavily dependent on international trade and have a small economies of scale.

    MIRAB Economies: These economies have a heavy dependence on migration- remittances-aid-bureaucracy. Those migrating to other countries send money to their home country to ensure their economy is sustained, which is not a sustainable practice.

    SITES: Small Island Tourist Economies earn the majority of their income from tourism. A natural disaster, resource depletion or pollution poses a threat to tourism thus severely affecting the countries economy.

    Sophia Lee La Selle

  11. Small Island Development States (SIDS) are small low lying island counties with small populations. Due to lack of resources and isolation, SIDS lack economies of scale, thus relying heavily on international trade.

    MIRAB economies depend upon the migration of national residents to overseas countries to help aid the local economy.

    Small Island Tourist Economies (SITES), rely heavily upon tourism to boost their local economy. Examples include; Vanuatu, Tuvalu and Samoa.

    Issues facing these nations include;
    • Coastal infrastructure threats (erosion and storms).
    • Competition from other SIDS offering similar products.
    • Government has limited resources to help locals caught up in natural disasters.

    Jaiman Patel - 1844168

  12. Small Island Development States (SIDS) refer to low-lying coastal countries. These islands tend to fall under the Migration, Remittances, Aid and Bureaucracy (MIRAB) model, in which the economy is highly reliant on remittances sent home from foreign workers. They also tend to be Small Island Tourist Economies (SITES), which are tourism oriented. E.g. Tourism accounts for 25% of Samoa’s GDP.

    The challenges faced by SIDS include:
    • Restricted access to resources due to location
    • Increased threat of natural disasters, triggered by climate change
    • Economies that have failed to diversify and are reliant upon tourism
    • Tension between traditional and colonial governance techniques

    Kasey Zhai

  13. SIDS stands for Small Island Development States, which are low-lying coastal countries. Due to their geographical isolation, they face problems such as a lack of resources and being susceptible to natural disasters.
    MIRAB economies refer to economies which are dependent on migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy, which is typically the type of economy that SIDS have.
    SITES are small island tourist economies which depend on the tourism industry for a large portion of its income (e.g. Samoa having 25% of their GDP from tourism).
    Issues which face these nations include:
    - Vulnerable economies
    - Sea level rise and environmental degradation
    - Lack of resources
    - Competition between other SITE

    Ashley Tan (5296023)

  14. Small Island Development States (SIDS) are low-lying coastal countries which are comprised of a small population.
    • Vulnerability to global developments
    • Costly public administration and infrastructure.
    • Absence of scale economies
    • Remote location
    • Poor strategic planning

    MIRAB economies evolved from colonisation, resulting in migration-remittance-aid-bureaucracy. National residents provide influx of national economy to their home nations.
    • This reliance is not sustainable

    Small Island Tourist Economies (SITES) are nations which earn majority of their money from tourism. Samoa’s tourism comprises approximately 25% of their total GDP.
    • Increase of natural disasters from climate change
    • Depletion of resources
    • Businesses have high debt

  15. SIDS - Small Island Development States are low lying coastal nations, which have little resources and are highly dependent on imports. SIDS are prone to natural disasters such as cyclones and tsunamis due to their geographical locations.

    MIRAB Economies- migration, remittances, aid, and bureaucracy are economies that depend on migration of residents to overseas countries to financially aid the local economy. This dependency is no sustainable.

    Sites - Small Island Tourist Economies are countries which depend on its tourism industry for income. For example Fiji.

    Issues - Sea level rising, climate change, natural disasters, vulnerable economies, limited resources and corruption.

    Rahul Chand

  16. SID (Small Island Development States): They are small remote islands with small populations. Their geography, lack of resources and services make them vulnerable to natural disasters and global developments.

    MIRAB (Migration, Remittances, Aid and Bureaucracy) economies: A typical model which has evolved from colonial pasts used to describe the micro-economies of small islands.

    SITES (Small Island Tourist Economies): An economy which is highly dependent on tourism.

    - Vulnerable to environmental issues
    - Poor economies of scale
    - Lack and education
    - Government has a lack of resources
    - High dependency on tourism
    - Competition with other SIDS

    Carmen Yuen [5476956]

  17. SIDS is an acronym for Small Island Development States and usually are low-lying coastal countries with small populations.
    MIRAB explains economies moving away from colonial era, showing economies of small island nations that deal with migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy.
    SITES describe tourist-oriented countries, relying on the tourism sector for their economy.
    Some of the challenges with these are having restricted amount of resources resulting in being dependent on other countries, vulnerable to natural disasters and coastal developments, when they are the least contributors. Also, there are corruption and tension in the government, as they attempt to become more westernised.

    Eun Jung Lee

  18. Robyn Kvalsvig (2710997)September 23, 2014 at 8:35 AM

    Small Island Development States (SIDS) are low-lying coastal countries with a small population, limited natural resources and are remote. They depend on international trade making them vulnerable to global developments.

    Migration-remittance-aid-bureaucracy (MIRAB) are economies that have evolved from a colonial past becoming dependent on external funding.

    Small Island Tourist Economies (SITES) have a strong focus on the tourism industry with it mainly focused around the coastal areas.

    Other challenges include environmental degradation from increased tourism, high cost of transport and communication due to economies of scale, natural disasters, and natural resource and waste management need to be planned for appropriately.

    Robyn Kvalsvig (2710997)

  19. SIDS- refers to ‘Small Island Development Nations’ which are prone to the difficulties of being small in size, isolated and vulnerable to natural disasters.
    MIRAB- this is a model developed in the 1980s to explain NZ’s postcolonial influence in Pacific Island countries. A MIRAB economy has an overreliance on transfers of payments from foreign countries and foreign aid.
    SITES- Small Island Tourism Economies refers to island nations whose economy largely revolves around earnings from the tourism sector.
    Some of the main issues confronting these nations include how they adequately plan for tourism, and how they plan for resilience regarding natural disasters and climate change.

    Brendan Versluys- 5918945

  20. SIDS (small island development states), MIRAB (migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy) economies and SITES (small island tourist economies) are often remote island nations which can be classified under one or all of these acronyms. Some of the main issues challenging these nations include:

    - Geographical isolation from the rest of the world, making them hard to access and service.
    - Small populations, which make infrastructure and services costly due to a lack of economies of scale.
    - Large migration to other countries for better job opportunities.
    - Vulnerability to natural disasters with the majority of development in coastal areas.
    - Narrow economies focussing on tourism which make them vulnerable to global economic changes.

  21. SIDS stands for Small Island Development States. SIDS are generally isolated coastal Island nations with very limited resources and are therefore heavily reliant on international trade.

    MIRAB stands for migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy and have an economic structure typical of SIDS. MIRAB economies are dependent on citizens working overseas to send money back to aid the local economy in their home nations.

    SITES stands for Small Island Tourist Economies and are heavily reliant on the tourism industry.

    The main challenges facing these nations are lack of economic diversity, limited resources, political tensions, ongoing environmental damage caused by climate change (flooding) and being vulnerable to large scale natural disasters such as tsunamis.

    Rishi Buggaveeti
    ID: 5679286

  22. Baolin Zhang 5595904 张宝林September 24, 2014 at 11:39 PM

    SIDS means Small Island Developing States, which are low-lying coastal countries with small population. Limited by the physical constraint, these countries are heavily depending on overseas aid and international trade and are vulnerable to natural disasters.

    MIRAB means economies which have colonial history and now depending on migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy, which means those migrations to other countries send financial aid to their home countries to sustain the economy.

    SITES means Small Island Tourist Economies, which have strong dependence on tourism to their economy.

    Those nations are challenged by limited natural resource, climate change, natural disasters, and extremely small scale/vulnerable economies.

    Baolin Zhang 5595904

  23. SIDS: “Small Island Development States”; typically low lying with small populations. Due to their size have little resources and depend heavily on international trade, because they lack economies of scale, infrastructure costs are high.

    MIRAB Economies: Once influenced by colonialism but now dependent upon “migration-admittances and aid-bureaucracy”.

    SITES: Used to describe islands in the South Pacific whose primary income is tourism. “Small Island Tourist Economies” are often MIRAB economies also, for example Samoa derives 25% of its GDP from tourism.

    Main Issues
    • Sea level rise and extreme weather
    • Limited resources and land
    • Young workers leaving Islands for work
    • Vulnerable to global financial market
    • Political tensions between traditionalists and westerners

    Jade Ansted (2696304)

  24. SIDS: Small Island Developing States
    MIRAB: Migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy
    SITES: Small Island Tourist Economies

    SIDS have small populations, very bureaucratic and are located on remote, low lying islands. These nations are dependent on international trade, International transferred funds, aid money and lacks economies of scale; MIRAB economy, which is why it is a no brainer that SIDS adopts SITES strategies to attract export-based money (tourists) Despite economic strategies, SIDS have and will encounter the following issues :

    - Coastal erosion
    - Natural disasters
    - Depleted resources
    - Tourism beyond capacity
    - Social inequality
    - Land privatisation
    - Competitive SITES
    - Service-based employment

    Jessie Jia Qin Xie - 2690826

  25. SIDS refer to low-lying coastal countries which have similar characteristics, e.g. small populations and poor productive capabilities, and face similar sustainable development challenges, e.g. lack of natural resources and vulnerable to natural disasters. These countries tend to have MIRAB economies, which mean their economies rely on remittances and foreign aid. Moreover, some SIDS have SITES (Small Island Tourist Economies), meaning tourism represents a large proportion of their GDPs and export earning.

    The main challenges these countries face are climate change and sea-level rise, geographic isolation from markets, vulnerability to frequent natural disasters, and economies that are heavily reliant on one source of income, e.g. tourism.

    Michelle Chan

  26. Masato Nakamura 5352865September 25, 2014 at 10:43 PM

    The terms are:
    Small Island Developing States
    Migration Remittances Aid Bureaucracy
    Small Island Tourist Economies
    These are some of the terms used to describe the island nations, notably in the pacific. Some of the main issues facing nations that falls under these categories are:
    1. Sea level rise and the resulting loss of fresh water and productive land.
    2. Vulnerability to climate change and other natural disasters being small nations.
    3. Vulnerability to global market as the GDP is increasingly dependent on tourist activity subject to spending power.
    4. Lack of quality employment, as a result of reliance on agriculture and tourism.

    Masato Nakamura
    ID: 5352865

  27. Kerryanne Lewis (5736818)September 26, 2014 at 9:47 AM

    SIDS are small island development states, which are isolated low-lying coastal countries with small populations. MIRAB economies rely on people who have moved overseas to send money back to their home country to assist the economy there, which is unsustainable. Small Island Tourist Economies (SITES) are countries that have become focused on tourism and earn a significant amount of money from the tourism industry.

    Main issues challenging these nations:
    - Limited access to resources.
    - Competition between SIDS.
    - Natural disaster threats associated with climate change.
    - People migrating to other countries for work.

    Kerryanne Lewis (5736818)

  28. SIDS is Small Island Developing States. They are remote low-lying coastal islands with lower population and limited resources. They are susceptible to natural diasters and dependent on international trading. MIRAB economies are those economies adapted to colonial past and rely on migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy. SITES are Small Island Tourist Economies—countries gaining increasing income from tourism. Many small islands share the above characteristics, e.g. Samoa, French Polynesia, Tonga, Marshall Island, Cook Islands. The main issues are—
    • Natural diaster like Cyclone & lack of strategic planing
    • Limited coastal infrastructure
    • Competition from other SIDS offering similar products e.g. tourism
    • Reduction in traditioanl fishing due to tourism development
    • Tension between traditional decision-making system & post-colonial democratic governance

    LIU XINRAN (5741596)

  29. Small Island Development States (SIDS) are small Island / low-lying countries that are usually with a small population and are dependent on international trade

    MIRAB Economies refers to economies evolved from colonial past which has become dependent upon migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy, which means that it is dependent on emigrated population providing financial support from overseas..

    Small Island Tourism Economies (SITES) refers to small island countries that have a tourism-oriented economy.

    Some of the issues are:
    • Vulnerable to natural disasters
    • Limited access to resources
    • Young people emigrate to other countries
    • Competition for other SITES

    Qiuan Wang #2904396

  30. Michelle Burns 5364129September 29, 2014 at 4:38 PM

    SIDS (Small Island Development States) are remote, low-lying, coastal countries/islands with a lack of resources and small populations.
    MIRAB (Migration-remittances-aid-bureaucracy) countries have a high amount of emigration and rely on financial aid sent back from overseas.
    SITES (Small Island Tourist Economies) are island countries with tourism-dependent economies.

    Challenges these nations may face include climate change/rising sea levels, lack of resources, natural disasters and creating economies of scale. Shifting towards planning tourism economies with an emphasis on local operators may help prevent the bulk of tourism profits from heading offshore whilst helping retain cultural identity (controlled tourism). However, many of these issues such as natural disasters are unpreventable and perhaps it is inevitable that many of these populations may need to relocate to larger and more stable countries such as New Zealand.

    Michelle Burns 5364129

  31. SIDS or Small Island Development States refer to small, isolated, low-lying islands that have limited resources and therefore rely heavily on international trade and aid.
    MIRAB Economies are economies which have formed from a colonial past and involve emigrants/expats sending financial aid back. These are also commonly SIDS.
    SITES are Small Island Tourist Economies and are island nations dependant on tourism to drive the economy.

    These nations face many challenges including:
    -Vulnerability to natural disaster
    -Depleted resources
    -Working age people emigrating
    -Small scale economies struggling to be competitive

    Sam Benson 5283855

  32. Dawn Sacayan 5779914September 29, 2014 at 9:49 PM

    SIDS refers to Small Island Development States and are countries that are predominantly dispersed across the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and the Caribbean and other coastal areas. Due to their size, low-lying geography and remoteness economic and community development of such states are often expensive and vulnerable to external factors. The lack of economies of scale for example requires over reliance on international trade which incurs high transportation costs. In addition, costly public administration and expensive infrastructure establishments
    A MIRAB economy stands for Migration-Remittances-Aid-Bureaucracy. This basically means that an economy is constructed and thrives upon money remittances sent from overseas into the country. This is significant in fuelling the local economy but deems to be unsustainable in the long-term
    SITES refer to Small Island Tourist Economy. Tourism plays a significant role and is arguably the main source of revenue for the local economy. Significant investments are put in the development of beautiful coastal and natural environment of the country. However, natural disasters, climate change, security and political stability often impose issues to this industry.

    Dawn Sacayan

  33. SITE's- are Small Island Tourist Economies, which typically have an over-reliance on tourism as a principal means of generating income, without which their livelihood would greatly suffer, such as Tahiti.

    MIRAB's are Migration Remittances Aid Bureaucracy States, such as Samoa, where much of the population lives overseas and sends money back to the home country to support family and a quality of life they could often not otherwise afford to have.

    SIDS are Small Island Development States, which are unique to small (mainly pacific) island nations such as Kiribati which rely heavily on outside support to sustain their well being, economically or otherwise.

    Their common features are: geographic isolation, low-lying topography, small population base, and an under-diversified economy (mainly based on fishing, growing taro, some tourism).

    Climate Change poses a big threat to many of these nations, as sea level rise causes their water supplies to be diluted with salt water and tropical cyclones to do more damage to infrastructure. Eventually many atolls may be unable to support a permanent population.

    Tourism, when not effectively managed, can cause many problems as the SIDS have to import many of the goods the tourists want, develop infrastructure to attract them and cater to their needs, and are often unable to deal with the waste tourists produce.

    Luke Carey 2655799

  34. SIDS is Small Island Developing States. It is a low-lying coastal country with small population, lack resources and are remote.
    MIRAB economies: Migration-Remittances-Aid-Bureaucracy. Which means economies can depend on immigrated population from overseas.
    SITES: Small Island Tourist Economies, the economic development on islands basically depend on tourism.
    Main issues:
    - Lack of economies of scale and high costs in transportation and communication.
    - Vulnerable coast environment because original limited resource and tourism growth.
    - Unstable legal system between traditional view and western system.

    Simiao Zou 2681401

  35. SIDS refers to Small Island Developing states which are typically low lying coastal countries. They are heavily reliant on international trade and therefor vulnerable to global developments, narrow resource base and natural disasters. MIRAD (migration, remittances, aid and bureaucracy) economies refers to past colonial economies which depend on immigrating young people to send financial aid back to their home state. SITES refers to small island tourist economies where local economies are reliant on tourism for local economy contributions.
    Some of the main issues of these nations includes vulnerable economies, economies of scale, reduced resource access, global trends towards western systems, climate change adaptation, natural disasters coupled, environmental degradation, and inevitable retreat from sea level rise.

    Brittney Sutherland-4993177