Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Lecture 26 August Japan

Broadly speaking, what were the main influences on Japanese urban planning over the past two-and-a-half thousand years?


  1. Overall japan has had a planning influence of efficiency due to the geographical restrictions of the environment throughout its history. For example in classical Japanese urban planning, adoption of Chinese influences led to strict grid patterns in Japanese capital cities. Furthermore since 1868 the adoption of western planning systems and concepts included garden cities, zoning and district plans. Japanese planning now adopts public participation and decentralisation as a way to efficiently manage land use. Another recurring influence is the aim to recreate natural beauty in an urban form this can be seen by the areas dedicated for gardens and temples.

    Harry Choi

  2. Kate Richardson 5473245August 30, 2014 at 3:59 PM

    Japanese urban planning has evolved over centuries to cater to the high population. Key influences include; the Mikado, Chinese grid patterns and built form, Buddhism and a desire for serene gardens.
    Natural disasters, like the 1923 Tokyo earthquake, led to a change from historic built form to new concepts, like Howard's garden city, being integrated. Transit is integral part of Urban Planning in Japan: The bullet train allows new urban centres to be developed. The high density of these mega-complexes makes them economically viable. Japan's long history and physical features, such as being an island, have also profoundly influenced Urban Planning.

    Kate Richardson 5473245

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  4. Japanese urban planning had been influenced by its geographic characteristics and historical events of wars and earthquakes. Through communication with neighbouring country, China, the emperor Mikado adopted the governance system of Tang Dynasty to strengthen the central government as well as the checkerboard system, seen in Kyoto. Also, after gaining power from defeating wars, they desired to become more developed and civilised, as well as earthquakes forcing changes to city structures. This resulted in imitation of the Western planning concepts and with the establishment of the Urban Planning Act, decision-making power of central government, district plans and zoning were introduced.

    Eun Jung Lee

  5. Japanese Urban Planning has been influenced greatly by Chinese grid patterns. Japanese planning evolved furthermore after the 1923 earthquake in Kanto area, which leads to the changing of city structures. In 1868 Japanese planning adopted western planning systems and concepts such as district plans and zoning with the Urban Planning Act (1919). Urban Planning in Japan was not only influenced by other planning systems but also their historical events and their desire to become a developed city.

    Rahul Chand

  6. Kerryanne Lewis (5736818)September 5, 2014 at 12:47 PM

    Early urban planning in Japan was largely influenced by China, and the strict grid street pattern from China was imitated in Japan. Japanese urban planning changed in the modern era (1868-1945) when Japan aimed to modernise and become a developed country. To do so, Japan imitated Western planning systems, which included introducing zoning and the garden city concept. The 1923 earthquake in the Kanto area also influenced planning by resulting in a change in built form. The desire to have aesthetically-pleasing gardens also influenced Japanese planning as it led to the development of Japanese gardens.

    Kerryanne Lewis (5736818)

  7. Sophia Lee La Selle 2862608September 5, 2014 at 8:07 PM

    The main influences on Japanese urban planning consists of:
    1. Grid street pattern from China.
    2. Geographical restrictions due to the status of the environment and influence from several wars.
    3. Between 1868 and 1945 Japan aimed to transition into a developed country. Thus imitating Western-planning systems, which include Howard’s idea of the Garden city. It also includes zoning and district plans.
    4. The earthquake in Kanto (1923) resulted in a change from the historic built form to a modernized approach.
    5. Gardens and temple represent Japans aim to ensure natural beauty is incorporated into the built form.

  8. Significant influences on Japanese urban planning occurred before and after WWII.

    • Pre WWII (1868-1945), planning was used as a tool for natural disaster recovery and achieving the status of a developed country. Japan adopted Western planning concepts including zoning, regional plans, and Howard’s Garden City.
    • Post WWII (1945-present), planning was influenced by rapid development and the desire for a less centralised system, where local government could make planning decisions. In response, Japan borrowed elements from American and German planning systems. The Urban Planning Act 1968 was adopted, providing guidance on long term planning, land use planning, infrastructure, and urban design.

    Kasey Zhai

  9. Urban Planning in Japan has evolved and transformed on the back of a growing population and its changing demands. Initially, the concept of grid patterns used in China was adopted. Since 1868, focus was on economic and social development, western planning traditions such as zoning and district plan concepts were adopted. The 1923 Kanto earthquake damaged the historic built form and led to the evolution of modernistic built form. The new built form adopted Ebenezer Howard's garden city concept and incorporated Japanese gardens. Transit orientated development concept has strongly influenced Japanese urban planning in recent times with the introduction of bullet trains.

    Rishi Buggaveeti
    ID: 5679286

  10. There were three main influences on Japanese urban planning:
    1. During the Fedual era, Japan adopted Chinese grid pattern design to its major cities such as Tokyo.
    2. Prior to WWII, Japan began to imitate the Western planning systems, e.g. garden cities and zoning. A series of disasters provided opportunities for Japan to rebuild its cities and include disaster-proofed features.
    3. Japan's recent nuclear disaster is and will be a significant influence on its planning system. Japan's new approach to planning is beginning to and must become more sensitive to the need for disaster control and how to mitigate the impact of disasters when they occur.

    Michelle Chan
    ID: 5748827

  11. Japan’s Influences consist of:

    Imperial Japan
    (694-794) Built-form during the Tokugawa period with two noteworthy capitals; Heijo-Kyo, and Heian-Kyo. They were designed after China’s Tang Dynasty, issued by Emperor Mikado Takanori. The style diminished due to changing demands.
    Western-Planning Systems
    (1868 – 1945) Japan intended integration of western planning systems for development purposes. Establishment of western concepts included zoning, and decision-making.
    Disasters changing demands
    (1923) - Earthquake in Kanto region required 7 years of restoration. Restoration included fireproofing construction, with parks and rivers.
    (1968) - Urban Planning Act delegated decision-making powers to local government.
    Bullet trains established to improve efficiency.

  12. Ancient History (Before 1185)
    • Cities were influenced by Chinese grid structure.

    Feudal Era (1185-1868)
    • Collapse of Mikado power led to less ordered structure of roads.
    • Gardens ensure natural beauty is incorporated.

    Modern Era: Before WWII (1868-1945)
    • Desire to become a modern country led Japan to adopt western planning concepts, e.g. Howard’s Garden City.
    • 1910-1935 - urban planning was based on western concepts including zoning.

    Modern Era: Post WWII
    • Urban Planning Act 1968 was influenced by German and American planning, desire to bolster smaller cities, and it devolved power from central to local government.

    Sarah Burgess
    ID: 5316346

  13. Japans planning systems were influenced by a number of factors over the past two and a half thousand years. These factors include;

    Prior 1185 - Grid structure introduced from Chinese culture.

    1185-1868 – The collapse of the Mikdo’s power leading to the disorientation of road systems.

    1868-1945 - Adoption of western planning systems and concepts due to the strong desire to become a developed and civilised country.

    1872 - Rengaki planning (brick street planning).

    1923 - Earthquake in the Kanto area.

    1910-1935 – Establishment of urban planning and western based concepts such as zoning had a great influence on Japan.

    Jaiman Patel
    Id - 1844168

  14. Influences on Japanese Planning included the following.

    Ancient to Feudal era (pre 1185-1868)
    • Earliest influences were adopted from China and its grid pattern.

    Before WWII (1868-1945)
    • Japan started to incorporate western planning styles in order to become a more developed and civilised country.
    • Western style zoning and plan/policy making incorporated.

    • Natural Disasters (Kanto earthquake 1923, Fires).
    • WWII – Nuclear attacks.

    After WWII
    • Planning influenced by these events with particular regard to disaster control.
    • Desire to bolster smaller towns and cities and give more power to local government (1968 Urban Planning Act).
    • Influence of German and USA planning systems in Japan.

    Nickolas James Renton
    ID: 4993863

  15. Masato Nakamura 5352865September 8, 2014 at 5:02 PM

    In very broad terms, there are three main influences on Japanese urban planning throughout its history. Neighbouring cultures (China and Korea) have had significant influence prior to 1868. An example is the grid pattern adopted in ancient cities such as Kyoto/Nara, imitating Xian of the Tang Dynasty. Western planning also had an impact after the 1868 modernisation, introducing the garden city concept and zoning. Natural disasters occurring every 200 years and WWII also significantly influenced Japanese planning. After WWII, Japanese planning became focused on economic growth and reconstruction. This mind-set persists to this day, notably at the central government level.

    Masato Nakamura
    ID: 5352865

  16. Broadly speaking, Japan’s urban planning has been influenced by Western and Chinese ideologies and practices. In ancient times, the Japanese built their cities based on patterns found in the Chinese urban form, such as the grid layout. Prior to the Second World War, Japan studied and imitated American and British practices in the construction of buildings and urban form (such as the Garden City model). International concepts such as ‘zoning’ were also adopted. Other influences include man-made and natural disasters- these precipitated the adoption of new ideas and practices following the recovery of disasters, such as Mass Rapid Transit and the development of new towns.

    Brendan Versluys- 5918945

  17. Prior to 1868, Japanese urban planning was mainly influenced by Chinese urban planning. For example, a similar grid-pattern of Xi’an was adopted in ancient cities such as Kyoto. Since 1868, modernisation resulted in urban planning largely influenced by western planning ideologies. For example land zoning and Howard’s Garden City concept were adopted. After WWII, German and America urban planning ideology often influence urban planning in Japan.

    Qiuan Wang #2904396