Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Week 8 Nigeria

How do you see Nigeria in the next 10 years with and without a solution to the urban challenges of today?


  1. Kate Richardson 5473245September 24, 2014 at 11:32 AM

    Nigeria will evolve in the upcoming decade. Nigeria's context, next to North Africa, suggests a change in role. Nigeria may also split between the Northern and Southern region: This happened in Somalia in 2011.

    Population growth is likely to continue so policy will detract people from already hugely congested cities, like Lagos. This will improved the national transport network.

    Politically, diversity issues must be addressed. Therefore more federal power is vital for continuity. This will ensure utilities, like water, are available nationwide. However, is diversity too broad for effective government? I argue better public participation will allow needs to be met.

    Kate Richardson 5473245

  2. Masato Nakamura 5352865September 25, 2014 at 10:45 PM

    Some of the urban challenges that face Nigeria today are the following.
     Ethnic diversity
     Rapid population increase
     Informal settlements
     Disproportionate distribution of wealth
     Lack of citizen participation
    In the event Nigeria does not have solutions for these urban challenges over the next decade, the severity will increase, with violent backlashes as a result. Furthermore, Nigeria will be more vulnerable to peak oil, climate change and economic crises.
    However, if Nigeria is able to find a coherent solution to these issues in the next decade, Nigeria may be able to achieve economic, social and environmental resilience.

    Masato Nakamura
    ID: 5352865

  3. The urban challenges today are—
    • Rapid urbanisation & population growth
    • Limited infrastrucutre provision including transportation system, water, housing, security, health, etc
    • Tensions between climate change/environmental pollution and oil economy
    • Political fragmentation between different areas/ ethnic groups/ tribes
    • Inadequate legal framework and limited public participation

    Nigeria may effectively tackle these challenges in 10 years by making great effort to promote a participatory, multi-stakeholders and collaborative policy-making and implementation in two priority areas—urban infrastructure development and regeneration, and effective governance. Otherwise, the issues exacerbated with political tension would lead to domestic violence and international interventions. The north and south could potentially become two countries.

    LIU XINRAN (5741596)

  4. Nigeria faces a multitude of urban development issues;
    - Rapid urbanisation (and population increase in general).
    - A serious lack of adequate housing, causing informal settlement to take place.
    - Limited water, electricity, telecommunications and other basic infrastructure.
    - Tensions between different cultural/ethnic groups with rising inequality and a history of conflict.

    Without a solution to these issues I think Nigeria will become increasingly difficult to govern without military intervention, crime and inequality will worsen and potential fragmentation into two separate nations might occur.

    With a solution to these issues I think environmental sustainability will become a hugely important topic. Nigeria: with reasonable infrastructure, greater housing supply, stable government, gradually slowing population growth and greater participation in democracy might attract a manufacturing boom similar to China's, based on the availability of cheap labour and oil for production of plastics. But this would place incredible strain on the environment and natural resources. It will also hasten the process of urbanisation.

    Luke Carey

  5. Robyn Kvalsvig (2710997)September 30, 2014 at 11:41 AM

    Urban challenges:
    - Rapid population growth
    - Multiple ethnicities
    - Increased pressure on transport infrastructure and basic services
    - Disproportion of wealth distributed from oil companies
    - Environmental degradation of natural resources

    Appropriate consideration for the ethnicities and the infrastructure to meet basic needs. Distribution of wealth to benefit the population, more regulations surrounding their activities, reducing environmental degradation so the population can sustain themselves.

    If ignored there is the possibility of socially, economically and political unstable country, cities designed around the chaos of a rapid growing population and an economy based on the price of oil.

    Robyn Kvalsvig (2710997)

  6. Nigeria is an oil-based economy and its wealth is concentrated within megacities, which are supposedly bead-trimmed with opportunities. These areas will remain increasingly vulnerable to population influx and congestion, and ethnic tension will continue as people get squeezed into disorderly social structures. Migrants that don’t fit in the economy of city tend to resort to shantytowns, followed by informal activities and crime.

    There is a need for federal directives to disperse the urban-population, disperse opportunities and diversify the economy. In conjunction, States need to become clearer so the bureaucrats will have defined jurisdiction; giving local-led projects and strategic plans greater credibility.

    Jessie Jia QIn Xie

  7. Kasey Zhai 1838497October 1, 2014 at 8:09 PM

    Nigeria is faced with urban challenges typical to countries that have experienced rapid urbanisation and population growth, including environmental degradation, housing and infrastructure provision, and social inequality.

    If Nigeria can, in response, achieve a stable political government formed upon democracy, and comprehensive policies to improve standards of living and guide landuse development, then urbanisation can be an opportunity for growth. The country already possesses an oil rich economy and consists of several large cities where future economic development can concentrate. Left unattended, these challenges will result in poor living standards, political instability, and significant tension between the north and south.

    Kasey Zhai

    1. Reference:

      Alkali, J. (2005, June). Planning Sustainable Urban Growth in Nigeria: Challenges and Strategies. Paper presented at the Conference of Planning Sustainable Urban Growth and Sustainable Architecture, New York.

  8. Nigeria faces urban challenges including rapid urbanization and population growth, limited infrastructure provision, uneven resource and wealth distribution and growing tension between different cultural groups.
    In the next ten years, it is not optimistic that theses issues will be less severe unless Nigeria responses positively by promoting an integrated and participatory political framework upon infrastructure provision and ethnic tension relief in priority. Otherwise the vulnerable oil-based economy will eventually collapse with dilapidated urban environment and worsening inequality issues and face the possible spilt between the Northern and Southern region.


  9. Some of Nigeria’s urban issues:
    - Rapid urbanisation
    - Inadequate quality housing
    - Poor communication
    - Non-integrated policies across Nigeria
    - Lack of public participation

    If no solutions are proposed, the country will suffer from political instability, inequality issues, and well-being degradation due to the lack of integration and overarching political guidance. However, with good solutions, Nigeria has great development and sustainability potential as the country already possesses oil-resources and large population for human capital. Additionally, with better political guidance and integration, it will allow for more efficient resource use, decrease in conflict and common goals to be achieved between states.

    Carmen Yuen 5476956

  10. Rapid urbanisation and uncontrolled population growth has caused significant issues in Nigerian cities, such as Lagos City and Abuja City. A dearth of sufficient urban planning and management measures has proliferated urban related issues, such as, high crime, traffic congestion, quality housing supply and environmental issues and health/sanitation issues. This has occurred due to the speed of urban growth, Lagos City in particular has a population estimated between 9 million – 15 million and could become the third largest mega city by 2015. If sufficient urban management measures are not initiated today in 10 years time the urban issues aforementioned will have proliferated to a crises point and will become incredibly difficult to address.
    Josh Kennedy 2981842

  11. Urban challenges that Nigeria is currently facing:
    - Rapid urbanisation and population growth
    - High rates of poverty, rise of informal settlements
    - Limited basic infrastructure, unable to deliver proper sanitation
    - Unable to address waste management, crime, and social conflict

    Nigeria is an oil-based economy, therefore it must protect this by starting with a stable political environment with anti-corruption measures. Nigeria must respond with an integrated approach to sustainability for balanced development through policies and institutional frameworks related to housing, infrastructure, land-use development, health, and the environment. If these issues are not addressed through political guidance, the previously mentioned urban challenges will continue and will become increasingly harder to address.

    Ashley Tan (5296023)

  12. I dont think that applying democratic planning solutions to a country like Nigeria with such a fragmented history is likely to work and instead will harm Nigerians. Urban planning solutions are attempting to create a coherent system of management, including regulated land use, fewer informal settlements and top down distributed population growth. But unfortunately for the decision makers of Nigeria, it is very difficult to control 9 million people that are incredibly ethnically diverse and have varying beliefs. I think it is more likely that an organic solution will develop, where people remove themselves out of the formal planning system. This has been seen in places like Mexico city where informal settlements have developed and people manage their own area of the city autonomously. Already some forms of political resistance are being seen in Lagos where people are removing themselves from the formal economy as a mechanism for discontent. This is even more likely to occur with todays development of modern technology that is giving people that are typically powerless, access to communication and the ability to be semi-autonomous.

  13. Challenges for Nigeria

    o Inadequate Infrastructure
    o Rapid Population Increase
    o Oil based Economy
    o Economic Inequality

    Without supporting infrastructure growth will be stunted and economic inequality exacerbated. Environmental pollution and climate crisis will be a serious risk, particularly if urban development absorbs arable land used to feed the growing population.

    Action should be taken to develop a diversified economy with wealth redistribution and urbanization managed if they are to provide quality housing and infrastructure to improve resident’s lifestyle. Achieving this in 10 years is uncertain as the government is still running after development rather than guiding it.


  14. Urban challenges that Nigeria has to face today are:
    -Ethnic and religious diversity
    -Population growth
    -Inadequate institutional and legal framework
    -Limited social infrastructure such as: housing, security, environmental and health, transport.
    -Lack public participation

    In current situation, Nigeria will suffer in these issues with their fragile policy system. I think Nigeria hardly mitigate these potential risk especially oil-based economy issues unless the country in next 10 years will promote an integrated and stable policy and institution system for environmental and sustainable development.

    Simiao Zou 2681401

  15. DAWN SACAYAN 5779914October 6, 2014 at 12:17 PM

    One thing for sure is that the INCREASING RATE OF URBANIZATION is a phenomenon that will continue to define the cities of Nigeria in the next 10 years regardless whether urban challenges have been solved or not. What will be different, however, is the extent and severity of these urban challenges if Nigeria’s governance and planning prevails to remain the same or change.

    Left unchanged, the effects of urban challenges would obviously multiply and further depend on international aid and intervention. There will be widespread discontent from all social classes, increasing deprivation of basic needs and adverse effects on health (vulnerability to epidemics and deaths) and environmental degradation. Ultimately, effects borne out of the lack of infrastructure may be entrenched socially and economically resulting to severe crime and security issues.

    A solution can be an attempt of co-existence, cooperation and coordination in governance and facilitation of policy research and public participation in planning. However, I think that there will still be no drastic change or significant improvements on Nigeria’s urban challenges within 10 years. Given the nature of the root problem (government heavily influenced by factions and ethnic/religious divide), significant changes would be realised only after a generation has changed and solutions were to guide decision-makers to plan for its citizen equally rather than privileging on group over another.

  16. Some of the urban challenges faced by Nigeria include:
    - Rapid urbanisation and population growth put extra pressure on existing poor infrastructure
    - Environmental degradation
    - Insufficient housing
    - Ethnic, cultural and religious tensions create inequality and conflicts
    - Lack of public participation

    If these problems are left unattended, the living conditions of the poor will continually worsen, potential outbreak of infectious disease, significant environmental degradation and potentially another civil war. However, if these problems are well managed through the achievement of political stability and the creation of an integrated planning system, Nigeria may experience improved living standards, economic development, celebration of cultural diversity and increased resilience.

    Michelle Chan

  17. In order for Nigeria to become one of the top global economies within the next generation, it needs to address various social, economic, cultural and environmental problems. Nigeria needs to make solid commitments backed by resources to reduce poverty, address health problems like AIDS/HIV, and plan for future growth by investing in sustainable infrastructure networks with the capacity to meet future growth. Corruption and a lack of discipline and political will in the development and implementation of policies is a serious obstacle for Nigeria overcoming many of its problems. Nigeria needs to address the historic and contemporary issues increasingly confronting it to reach its potential, and maximize the value of its economic strengths.

    Brendan Versluys- 5918945

  18. Two main issues in my mind will challenge Nigeria over the next 10 years and will influence the nation's development. Firstly, the rapid urbanisation in the Southern cities including Lagos has resulted in significant overpopulation and overcrowding in the city. An issue with lack of housing directly goes hand in hand with this problem as well as the lack of suitable infrastructure to cope with the increasing populations. This will provide huge issues for the nation and can further distance the North from the South - possibly resulting in the country splitting into two different states.

    Secondly, the country's reliance on oil as a main export means the country will become very vulnerable to the peak oil crisis. Therefore Nigeria needs to focus on other economic endeavours to be globally competitive and have a successful economy in 10 years time.

    Sam Benson - 5283855

  19. Michelle Burns 5364129October 7, 2014 at 9:06 PM

    If these urban challenges (eg. rapid growth, housing, environmental degradation, etc) remain unsolved it seems inevitable that the country will split. This will not benefit the northern states which have very little to offer in terms of exports and this may lead to further environmental degradation and disparities.
    The best way forward could be to promote other forms of economic development that allow for more sustainable outcomes rather than oil dependency. Planning should also encourage better environmental outcomes and provide for increased public participation at the local level, in order to better control and provide for growth.
    Personally, I find it difficult to imagine many of these issues being solved in the next decade and a split of the country may actually better improve conditions for all ethnic and religious groups if the northern states can build up their economies.

    Michelle Burns 5364129

  20. Brittney Sutherland 4993177October 13, 2014 at 9:30 PM

    The major issues Nigeria is facing include rapid urbanisation, improper sanitation, population growth, environmental degradation, insufficient housing and lack of democratic participation. If these issues are left unsolved then living conditions will worsen, increased inequality will occur and there will be a widened gap between the impoverished. This requires a move towards a stable political system that is founded on sustainability. Currently Nigeria’s economies are reliant on extractive industries such as and deforestation economies which is the primary contributes to Nigerias urban issues. This requires the creation of an integrated top down bottoms up planning system with a integrated approach towards balanced institutional frameworks.

  21. Baolin Zhang 5595904 张宝林October 14, 2014 at 4:28 AM

    Nigeria is facing urban challenges mainly include:
    - Rapid population growth and urbanisation, but lack of infrastructures such as housing, water, health care and security
    - Ethnic antagonisms with increasing inequality
    - Heavy dependence on oil
    - Other issues like climate change

    The country is currently threatened by social, economic and political instability. It is important to address those issues. Otherwise there will be increased tension and the government will find it difficult to govern without military intervention in the next decade, or even a split between the north and south regions. Key concerns include providing a stable government with participatory and integrated political framework, giving more focus on infrastructures especially housing and releasing ethnic tension by the introduction of an equal system.

    Baolin Zhang 5595904

  22. Some of the problems faced by Nigeria are:
    • Rapid urbanisation
    • Population increase
    • Spatial inequality and conflict between people of different ethnicity and religion
    • Inadequate infrastructure provision
    • Environmental degradation

    In my opinion, there is a need for central guidance and alignment in the provision of infrastructures throughout the country. Also, there need to be some method of wealth redistribution and to encourage growth in areas other than the in the southern region. This may means that there need to be a diverse range of economic activities other than oil-based economy.

    Qiuan Wang #2904396