Tuesday, September 29, 2009

Assignment 1 articles to post and share

Students at The University of Auckland have been writing articles for their first assignment explaining the approach of a place outside NZ to an aspect of urban sustainability.


  1. Balancing Act: Weighing up the notions of urban sustainability

    Calls have been made for planners to move sustainable development past rhetoric and into practice. In an urban development context this translates to supporting and promoting infrastructure that pays regard to its environmental and social impacts. These impacts must also be balanced with economic and performance interests . This article will explore approaches taken in developing urban areas to promote infrastructure that balances social and environmental responsibility, and economical viability. Cities the world over are directing much of their development efforts to their inner centres in an attempt to attract apartment living, increased economic activity and business investment, and promote a more compact lifestyle. Melbourne is no exception. The Melbourne Docklands brownfield development shall form the focus of this analysis into urban infrastructure development approaches.

    Melbourne Docklands
    The Docklands represent Australia’s largest urban renewal project at 200 hectares just west of Melbourne’s Central Business District. From the outset the Docklands project was intended to be market driven with a focus of securing private developers to work alongside the local authority . This approach has been reflected throughout the development as the authorities involved sought to work with private developers in partnerships. An Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) Guide, produced by the Victorian Sustainable Development Authority (VicUrban), guides developers with quantifiable standards that must be met by all major buildings in the precinct. The ESD Guide acknowledges and promotes the sustainable benefits of well designed urban form with a focus on durability and energy and resource efficiency . By creating partnerships with private developers, VicUrban is able to ensure that the infrastructure developed in the Docklands meets a sustainable balance.

    *to be continued

  2. ESD Guides Success
    The ESD Guide has raised awareness of successes in sustainable building techniques of the public and developers. Homes buyers have demanded sustainable alternatives that inner city apartment living within close proximity to an employment centre, entertainment and retail has been able to provide . The Melbourne Docklands have capitalised on this by creating an urban area that promotes social and environmental outcomes without pricing the residential housing in the development out of the market. The Montage apartment building is an example of this. Designed to maximise cross ventilation to all residences and incorporating solar energy and rainfall collection systems, it attracts a wide socio-economic mix .
    Developers have also readily adopted the building standards from the ESD Guide and have strived past the minimums to meet higher benchmarks in the sustainable building rating, to gain ESD awards. This has been driven by developers looking to future proof their investment, public pressure and demand for higher rating buildings, and the added value to the finished product . Examples of this are easy to find. Blackwater wastewater treatment systems operate in the ANZ centre, ACE training centre, and the Gauge office block . All three of these buildings make use of rainfall either to irrigate a green roof, for non potable use in the building, or as a cooling system that utilises lower night temperatures to regulate the building temperature . These and other examples of reduction in energy and resource consumption illustrate the Docklands success in promoting positive environmental outcomes while not compromising the economic viability of the development.
    A policy to require developers to make monetary contributions to public open space has lead to more than thirty urban sculptures or artwork. This policy has been identified as a key component to the Docklands place making strategy . This is another example of VicUrban managing to create a socially desirable environment while maintaining economical viability.

    The projects market driven focus of creating partnerships with private development firms to limit government authority financial involvement in the project has drawn criticism. This focus has been labeled developer-centric planning, with a lack of urban designer intervention blamed for shortcomings in design and function . These critics point to a lack of pedestrian activity and culture in Docklands; although it is worth remembering the project is not due for completion for another decade.
    The Melbourne Docklands have arguably achieved an urban environment that meets its environmental responsibilities while maintaining economically feasibility; however the social environment or lack thereof has drawn criticism. The market driven approach adopted by Victorian local government has contributed to an urban form that represents the balance of social and environment responsibility and economic viability. The development is currently unfinished and only in time can it be accurately judged to assess the success and shortcomings of its unique approach.

    *Dont know how to paste the photo into here

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  5. Good work Adam! It's a very interesting article! I never thought about the inter-linkage between public toilet and tourism until reading your post.

  6. David Badham 4693262October 3, 2009 at 12:37 PM

    Urban Consolidation: Lessons from Across the Ditch
    David Badham 4693262

    Sprawl has almost become a four letter in modern society and has come to encompass the many ‘evils’ of contemporary urban/sub-urban environments. The causes of sprawl are widely documented and generally blame is attributed to the twentieth century western preoccupation with low density suburban development. Australia has been no exception to the western fixation on sprawl, and in 2001 it was estimated that around 70% of Australia’s population lived in suburban environments. Urban consolidation is widely heralded as a major solution for combating sprawl and its implications. This article will examine, using Melbourne as an example, how Australian cities are utilising urban consolidation initiatives to combat sprawl and to promote urban sustainability.

    The Problem: A Suburban Nation
    The development of suburbs was a key preoccupation of Australian cities in the twentieth century. This fixation was effectively the product of the great ‘Australian Dream.’ European settlers came to Australia seeking a new life style that provided liberty, privacy and a change from the excesses of the city. Subsequently the Australian suburban population increased from less than one million to more than eleven million over the twentieth century. However, by the 1990s and early 2000s academics highlighted that suburban sprawl has resulted in the gluttonous use of land, environmental degradation and the widespread degradation of inner city areas that is being experienced worldwide at present. This academic rhetoric has effectively forced a reconsideration of how Australian authorities and average Australians consider the idyllic suburban lifestyle.

    *NB Continued in following post

  7. David Badham 4693262October 3, 2009 at 12:39 PM

    Solution: Urban Consolidation
    Urban consolidation policies essentially focus on creating more compact urban environments by increasing housing and employment densities in large cities. Supporters argue that compact cities support public transport, reduce urban expansion and ultimately are more efficient in terms of environmental sustainability. Urban consolidation policies form a key component of metropolitan planning approaches to containing sprawl in Australian cities. This is emphasised in the Victorian Government’s recent metropolitan initiative, Melbourne 2030. Melbourne 2030 is a 30 year plan formulated to manage the foreseeable growth of one million people anticipated to occur across the Melbourne metropolitan area and surrounding region. The plan is commendable in its aims. It seeks to drastically change traditional patterns of growth in the Melbourne metropolitan area by endeavouring to develop a more compact urban form while accommodating an estimated 620,000 required dwellings. Initiatives include the establishment of an urban growth boundary and the concentration of 70% of future growth within the existing metropolitan area between 2001-2030. It is anticipated that the majority of this growth will be accommodated in the form of medium to high density housing that will occur around major mixed use activity centres in the current metropolitan area that are supported by strong public transport links. The intention is that these medium to high density developments will account for 53.5% of total development approvals by 2026-30 compared to just 24% in 1997-2001. Correspondently, it is proposed that the proportion of dispersed suburban development outside the urban growth boundary will decrease from 38% to 26% over the same period. This intensification of medium to high-density dwellings is intended to reduce car-dependence, diminish urban dispersal, make more local jobs accessible to residents and contribute to sustainable urban growth for Melbourne.

    In general for many of the urban consolidation initiatives in Australian cities it is still too early to measure success. In relation to Melbourne recent studies have revealed some promising results with statistics showing an incremental growth both numerically and proportionately in multi-unit dwellings in the Melbourne metropolitan area since the initiation of Melbourne 2030 in 2001. However there are also some equally concerning results. For instance despite this apparent growth in medium to high density housing in inner Melbourne, more than 80% of Melbourne’s growth is still occurring in outer Melbourne where 60% of new housing projects are being approved.

    The Future
    There is no denying that Australian cities are actively trying to combat the ever increasing threat of urban/sub-urban sprawl. This is apparent in Melbourne’s attempts to promote urban consolidation through the Melbourne 2030 plan. However like is so often the case, policy and decision makers have a tendency to have good intentions and good ideas, but inadvertently seem to fall short at following through to achieving these goals. Ultimately the challenge amounts to convincing the general Australian public to abandon the traditional fixation on the suburban dream and persuading them to buy into the idea of medium-high density living. For this to happen urban consolidation initiatives need to be modified to acknowledge various social, institutional and local conditions while providing clear short-term processes that contribute to the achievement of long-term goals.

    *NB Reference List and photo not included

  8. Tsz Ning CHUNG tchu049October 3, 2009 at 5:07 PM


    by Tsz Ning CHUNG tchu049

    Dispersion, ‘the suburban dream’, outward urbanised expansion1,and automobile-centred are terms closely attributed to the issue of urban sprawl. Environmental degradation and resource depletion associated with urban sprawl are the driving force for managing growth via intensification through the achievement of compact urban forms in many developing and developed countries. The ‘compact city’ offers such an alternative urban form2.

    A new approach to manage urban growth in New Zealand

    In terms of population densities, Hong Kong may not have much in common with New Zealand but in terms of accommodating urban growth through the sustainable utilisation of space offered by the Multiple Intensive Land Use (MILU) approach, there is a potential of adoption in the transitional environment of New Zealand.

    As New Zealand’s urban environment transits away from traditional detached dwellings to higher-density living as per se the Scene Apartments in the Central Business District, New Market, the Nautilus Tower in Takapuna and the retail-residential terraces of Brown’s Bay, MILU has the potential of being a successful planning approach in allowing the accommodation of urban growth within the existing Metropolitan Urban Limit. As outlined in the Regional Growth Strategy, this intensification within the existing urban area is vital in achieving a quality compact urban form4 that may contain sprawl onto pristine agricultural-farmland. The Regional Growth Strategy is available from the Auckland Regional Council’s website: http://www.arc.govt.nz/albany/fms/main/Documents/Auckland/Aucklands%20growth/Auckland%20regional%20growth%20strategy.pdf

    The Multiple Intensive Land Use approach of Hong Kong: a compact city planning concept

    Urban sustainability is defined as a process of managing urban change to improve our quality of life by delivering better social, environmental and economic outcomes, for all people, in the present and in the future5.The MILU approach is a multiple use/mix-use development policy7 which guides urban space utilisation to manage urban growth. The approach thus relate to the Urban Sustainability dimensions of Urban design, landscape and form, environmental quality and resource conservation.

    ****************to be continued******************

  9. Tsz Ning CHUNG tchu049October 3, 2009 at 5:10 PM

    In Hong Kong the approach is characterised by developments of mixed-uses of residential, commercial, recreational, community, institutional and transportation; providing access to five or more modes of public transport; with access to a network of multi-level pedestrian links and supported by a mass transit railway station or interchange. Through the mixing of land-uses at different spatial scales as shown in Table 1 below, the implementation of the four MILU design concepts of Verticality, Space proximity, Compactness and Podium Design6 in developments is seen to support concentration of population densities and locating of different land uses in close proximity to one another and walkability are both elements of a compact city.

    ***table unable to be inserted properly

    With the vertical height of buildings, more spaces are created to accommodate higher residential and employment densities. Equally important, the different uses of residential, commercial, recreational, community, institutional and transportation can be accommodated across multiple floor levels within a building.
    Space Proximity
    The limited distance between buildings and street-blocks supported by the design concept of space proximity facilitates the concentration of multiple uses, facilities and services both vertically and horizontally.
    Walkability is promoted by the locating of residential dwellings and its supporting uses, facilities and services as mentioned above together in close proximity.
    New Zealand incorporating MILU design concepts
    If developments such as the Metropolis building in the Central Business District in New Zealand were to take on design concepts of the MILU approach, the mixing of more uses than that current practiced of residential and retail may result. Furthermore, higher density living to house more of the projected urban population can be achieved at the scale of walk-up apartments, terrace-housing and medium-rise apartments to better suit the New Zealand built environment. Multiple-use development is to a large extent a relative concept, varying in definition from country to country3.

    The successful implementation of the MILU approach in New Zealand with adaptations to better suit the New Zealand context is attributed to its transitional environment.

    Reference List:
    1 Chen, H., Jia, B. and Lau, S. (2008) Sustainable urban form for Chinese compact cities: Challenges of a rapid urbanised economy, Habitat International, 32, 28-40.
    2 Ganesan, S., Giridharan, R., Lau, S. and Wang, J. (2005) High-density, High-rise and Multiple and Intensive Land Use in Hong Kong: A Future City Form for the New Millennium, in Future forms and design for sustainable cities, Great Britain: Architectural Press, 153-165.
    3 Giridharan, R., Lau, S. and Wang, J. (2005) Smart and sustainable city- a case study from Hong Kong, in Brandon, P., Sidwell, A. And Yang, J. Eds, Smart and Sustainable Built Environments, Blackwell Publishing Ltd: UK.

    4 Auckland Regional Council 1999 Regional Growth Strategy, Auckland Regional Growth Forum, Auckland.

    5 Ministry for the Environment Sustainable Management Fund 2003 Urban Sustainability in New Zealand: An Information Resource for Urban Practitioners, Ministry for the Environment, Wellington.

    6 Ganesan, S., Giridharan, R. and Lau, S. (2005) Multiple and intensive land use: case studies in Hong Kong, Habitat International, 29, 527-546.

    7 Ganesan, S., Giridharan, R. and Lau, S. (2003) Policies for implementing multiple intensive land use in Hong Kong, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 18, 365-378.

    8 Mei, S., Lau, S. and Zaman, Q. (2000) The Compact City of Hong Kong: A Sustainable Model for Asia?, in Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries, London: Spon Press, 255-268.

  10. Tsz Ning CHUNG tchu049October 3, 2009 at 6:05 PM


    This is just a link to some of my highlights of my Hong Kong excursion. Enjoy!

  11. Cameron Wallace 4335502October 5, 2009 at 10:06 AM

    Water Scarcity & Urban Sustainability: An Australian Perspective

    The Issue
    Conventional urban development trends in Australia throughout the 20th century have continued to create serious water security issues for urban populations in Australia’s drying climate. Such urbanisation trends have created pressures on the demand for water supply and generated significant wastewater effluent discharge and treatment. These pressures are intensified by drought, predicted changes in Australia’s climate and by population growth. The Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organisation (CSIRO) have predicted an average increase in temperatures of 3.5 degrees by 2070 with a drop in average rainfall of up to 12% in the corresponding time frame across the continent. These climate change predictions coupled with an anticipated doubling of the urban population over the same time frame indicates that Australian cities will face significant water deficits and degradation of riparian environments.

    Planning Response
    Up until the 1990s planners and engineers developing water resources and its associated infrastructure viewed water as a single-use disposable product. Over the past 20 years concepts such as Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD), Integrated Urban Water Management (IUWM) and Low Impact Urban Design and Development (LIUDD) have been developed and implemented in developments around Australia’s urban centres as a means of achieving a more sustainable form of urban water management. Generally speaking, the key principles of all three approaches can be summarised as follows:
    • Recognition of all aspects of a local water system including water supply, evaporation, stormwater and wastewater features as one integrated system;
    • A focus on both the ecological and anthropogenic requirements for water;
    • Reduce contaminant discharges to the environment and maintain ecological flows;
    • Consideration of the local context, including for environmental, economic, social and cultural dimensions; and
    • Change in focus from a regional water cycle to the local/ neighbourhood level.

    New Horizons
    Alternative views of urban water management such as WSUD, IUWM and LIUDD promoted greater recognition of the value of recycled stormwater and wastewater as an important water resource in urban environments. IUWM and LIUDD both promote stormwater harvesting to supplement water supply, support aquifers and waterways, and vegetation within the local environment.

  12. cameron wallace 4335502October 5, 2009 at 10:08 AM

    Similarly, wastewater once captured and treated effectively, can be used to nourish valuable crops on the urban fringe and replace potable water for non-potable reuse. The value of wastewater recycling can be further enhanced through LIUDD which promotes treatment of wastewater onsite. Onsite treatment of wastewater reduces adverse environmental impacts and infrastructure costs associated with pumping wastewater to centralised treatment plants. Reclaimed water has a significant advantage in Australia’s drying climate in that it flows uniformly throughout the year and remains relatively consistent in quality, having been through a treatment chain with some quality assurance. In Australia recycled stormwater and wastewater is now viewed as a valuable economic commodity, as well as having intrinsic values in preserving environmental flows and in protecting fragile riparian environments from pollution by eliminating contaminants entrained in stormwater. Substitution of potable water uses with recycled water is of major importance when developing urban growth strategies for cities and towns where existing water sources are limited and future sources will be either difficult or expensive to develop.
    Over the past decade, reuse of recycled wastewater across the major urban areas of Australia has steadily increased (see Table 1). Reuse of recycled water has been shown to be among one of the most cost-effective ways of improving water use efficiency in urban areas where water resources are tightly constrained. Financial analysis conducted from several examples of IUWM developments across Australia indicates that, contrary to common perception, it is possible to achieve significant changes to the way water infrastructure is provided without necessarily incurring major additional costs across the board.
    Table 1 – Water reuse in Australia, 1998 - 2008
    Year Effluent (GL/yr)Reuse (GL/yr) % of Reuse
    1998 1538 112.9 7.3
    2008 1691 328 19.4
    Difference 153 215.1 12.1

    The Future
    The creation and maintenance of sustainable urban water services require technologies, actions and behaviours of many different actors to produce the desired outcomes south by urban communities. IUWM, WSUD and LIUDD will all create different solutions tailored to the specific characteristics and requirements of Australia’s urban environments. Driving the change towards these techniques are escalating infrastructure costs, ecological impacts and prolonged periods of drought and water shortages which effect the adequate provision of water systems across Australia. Planners need to be proactive and consider the future implications of climate change which include reduced rainfall and periods of prolonged drought. The emerging evidence from new forms of urban development and infrastructure provision based along the principles of IUWM, WSUD and LIUDD provides insights into more sustainable forms of development that help to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change, in turn producing more sustainable urban environments.


    Curitiba, the capital of the State of Paraná in Brazil, has demonstrated that it is possible to integrate land use and transport planning while tackling social equity issue.

    Curitiba, a city of 432 square kilometres, has a population of 1.8 million and is located in southern Brazil. Curitiba is often referred to as the model city for sustainability, particularly in the area of transport planning. Its highly-efficient all-bus public transit system is a result of “excellent central planning and support from federal transport agencies” in the 1960s and 1970s. Rapid urban growth from the 1960s onwards triggered the change in planning processes. Today, Curitiba has shown that its planning processes have successfully integrated transportation and land uses planning while taking social considerations into account.

    Driver for change
    Planning for growth began in the late 1960s and was led by former Mayor Jaime Lerner. The city’s transportation system can be viewed as an inducer of growth. The lack of funding for an underground system pushed the city’s planners, designers and engineers to think outside the box. The 1965 master plan proposed for five structural axes of public transport branching out from the city centre as a means to guide future growth and development. The plan placed the quality of life for citizens at the forefront while addressing the issues of rapid population growth. Although the plan was highly visionary, its goals were achievable under the leadership of Mayor Jaime Lerner. The structural axes were completed in 1974 and the first express bus lanes were opened in the same year.

    The bus system today
    It is ironic that Curitiba has one of the highest car ownership rates in Brazil due to high incomes in relation to the rest of Brazil. Despite that, Curitibanos have left their cars at home in exchange for a highly-efficient and well-utilised public transportation system. Public transit accounts for 55 per cent of private trips in Curitiba. The citizens of Curitiba and its wider metropolitan region make 2.14 million passenger trips on the bus system every day and the efficient system is used by 75 per cent of commuters in the city.

    The following are the key features of Curitiba’s bus system :
     72 kilometres of exclusive bus corridors
     Articulated and bi-articulated buses
     Pre-pay ticketing
     Innovative tube stations for safety and rapid boarding
     One-fare system
     Signal priority for buses at intersections
    The iconic tube stations provide commuters with the comfort of underground stations, acting like a ‘surface subway’. Since its operation, the system has expanded to five express busways. There are ten private companies who operate the buses and they work in partnership with the city administration. They are reimbursed according the distances travelled and not the number of passengers gained so competition is discouraged.

    Meeting multiple objectives
    The income inequality gap continues to increase in Brazil, like many developed countries. Transportation is an important “social component” for Curitiba. The one-fare system demonstrates the city’s dedication to tackling social equity issues. Those on lower incomes Buses in Curitiba only charge one fare regardless of the distance travelled. This approach responds to the needs low-income residents as many live on the outskirts of the city and would otherwise be disadvantaged by higher travel costs to work. It also means that the average commuter only spends about ten per cent of their income on transport.

    Why bus transit?
    The Curitiban approach to public transit reflects a low-cost yet effective way forward. A bus rapid transit system has the efficiency of light rail and flexibility in terms of routes. Any future expansion will be more financially feasible than underground options. A surface system of public transit also has a social aspect as passengers will feel more part of the city when they can observe their surroundings.

  14. World Leader
    In the view of former Mayor Taniguchi, the reduction in travel time to work equates to a higher quality of life. Therefore a highly-efficient transit system will meet multiple objectives. Curitiba is no doubt the world’s leader in land use and transport integration. The bus system is ever-expanding to the needs of its citizens and the growth of its city. The bus system in Curitiba has redefined public transportation, in terms of creativity, effectiveness, equity and efficiency.

  15. Amanda Minting WenOctober 7, 2009 at 5:39 PM

    How Can a City with Heavy Industrialised Past Go Green
    – Chicago: Building Up Its Green Legend through Green Roofing

    Mayor’s Sustainable Approach
    Chicago is known as the ’hometown of Skyscrapers’ and identified as the ‘USA’s architecture capital’. With the heavy industrialised background and the presence of hundreds of brownfield sites, it seems very difficult for Chicago to go green. However, under the leadership of Mayor Richard M. Daley‘s green crusade, a green Chicago is no longer considered as an unachievable dream. Mayor Daley intends to make Chicago the greenest city in America. His green approaches have been proudly supported by lots of organisations and parties, including the leading architects and other politicians. Their common goal is to transform Chicago to the greenest metropolis in USA.

    Mayor Daley supports his intention through actions. One of the approaches he adopted, is to install green roofs on Chicago municipal buildings. Green roofs are often described as decorative roof gardens with plantings and vegetations. After seeing the positive impacts of green roofs on a 1998 tour in Europe, Daley built the first roof garden on a municipal building in the country. It is also a demonstration project of the city, a rooftop garden with over 20,000 plants comprised of 156 species in early 2000.

    This action provides a unique example for other cities within the nation and the rest of the world, illustrating how a brownfield city can go green. Since then, the green roof industry in Chicago continues to grow. By 2008, Chicago had about 84 green roofs projects covering approximately 534,500 square feet.
    Daley says “we do this not because it’s fashionable, but because it makes sense. It enhances the quality of life; it saves money; and it leaves a legacy for future generations.”

    Green Roof Benefits
    There are two primary purposes for Chicago to develop green roof, one is to minimise the heat island effect. The City of Chicago did a study on roof temperature. It compared the roof temperatures of two similar buildings, one with green roof and one without. At a hot afternoon in August 2001, the study group recorded a difference of 28 degree Celsius between the two roofs. Base on the study information, the city authorities estimate that by installing green roof, it may save US$100 million on air conditioning.

    The other purpose of green roof development is to improve air quality. This is because vegetation has been proofed to be effective to reduce atmospheric pollution by filtering particulates and absorbing gaseous pollutants by many scientists. Apart from these two main benefits, other profits of green roofing include: enhancing aesthetic values, providing smarter stromwater management, absorbing noise, increasing open space and retaining biodiversity.

    Green Roof Policies
    Policies encourage green roofs developments in Chicago include an Energy Conservation Code passed in 2001, requiring roofs to have a minimum solar reflection. Although this policy does not specify about green roofs, the city authorities do accept green roofs as a way of meeting this requirement. Also there is ‘Building green’ policy, which allows a higher density of development for building with 200 metre square or 50 per cent roof greening (whichever is greater).

    In 2003, Chicago hosted the First Annual International Greening Rooftops for Sustainable Communities Conference, which is the roof industry’s first major conference. Since then, Chicago has developed the most comprehensive set of green roof strategies in North America. These include regulatory measures, financial incentives, and awareness raising strategies, namely, the Chicago Standard and Building Green/ Green Roof Matrix, Green Permit Program, Green Urban Design, Green Roof Grants Programs, Green Roof Improvement Fund, Storm Water Management and Water Agenda, Green Roof Web Resources, Green Roof Request for Information (FRI), and the Guide to Roof Top Gardening.

  16. Amanda Minting WenOctober 7, 2009 at 5:41 PM

    Lessons for New Zealand
    The City of Chicago has committed to develop as the greenest city in the USA. Politicians (e.g. Mayor Daley) make significant contribution in achieving this goal. One of the approaches Chicago adopted is to install green roofs. The benefits of having green roofs are widely recognised by the world and proofed by many scientists in many literatures. In New Zealand, not much emphasis and recognition is given to green roof development yet. In order to achieve greater urban sustainability, it may be a good idea for New Zealanders to adopt a green roof development approach.

    Amadei, G. L. (2007). Chicago: Reinventing a Legacy. In Blueprint. n.254, pp. 68 – 72

    Chamberlain, L. (2004). Mayor Daley’s Green Crusade. In Metropolis. v. 23 (11). Pp.104 – 109

    Grant, G. (2006). Green Roofs and facades. Bracknell: IHS BRE Press.

    Green Roofs. (2008). 2008 Green roof industry survey results. Retrieved on 20-8-2009, from www.greenroofs.org.

    Peck, S. (2008). Civic Awards: Championing the Cause. In Award winning Green Roof Designs. Atglen, PA, USA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd. pp. 158 – 163

    Theodore, E. (2004). Chicago’s green crown: it’s a testament to Chicago’s urban greening, but is it a model for other green roofs. In Landscape architecture. v.94, n.11, pp.106-113

  17. “Garbage that is not Garbage”

    Garbage that is not garbage? Rubbish in exchange for food and bus tokens? Recycling as a source of income? These are all waste recycling schemes that have embraced Curitiba citizen’s commitment to environmental responsibility, becoming a world leading model of a ‘Sustainable City.’ Curitiba, Brazil, is a city of 432 square kilometers containing a population of 1.7 million. Curitiba’s citizens recycle two thirds of their house hold wastes which increases Curitiba’s landfill life time by 20-30 percent. In comparison, Auckland with a population of 1.3 million, disposes around 3.4 million tones of rubbish to landfills every year, and 65 percent of this waste can be reused or recycled into useable materials.

    Curitiba’s sustainable recycling schemes include the “Garbage that is not Garbage” campaign, organic and non-organic waste separation initiatives, ‘Cambio Verde’- a ‘Green Exchange’ programme and ‘Ecociudadanas’ cooperatives

    “Garbage that is not Garbage” campaign was aimed to encourage behavioral changes of Curitiba’s citizens by educating the vulnerable and naïve minds of children. The campaign organized a system where children would bring recyclable waste such as broken toys or plastic to school before Christmas, and near Christmas children would receive new toys that had been made out of these plastic wastes. Through this campaign children clearly understood that “waste was not waste.”

    ‘Cambio Verde’ is a ‘Green Exchange’ programme introduced by government in 1990 to ‘Favelas’- squatter settlements near riverbanks at the outskirt of the central city. Residents within Favelas can exchange recyclable material such as cardboard boxes, scrap metal and glass for food. For every four kilograms of recyclable material, one kilogram of food can be exchanged. Bus tokens can also be exchanged for separated organic and non-organic rubbish. Government expenses on providing bus tokens and food in exchange for garbage are of equal value to the costs of hiring private companies to collected garbage at the peripheries of the city. Through ‘Cambio Verde’ 13.5 tons of wastes are exchanged per week and these ‘Cambio Verde’ systems are located at over 88 points in Curitiba. Successfully, recyclables became a profitable source of income for the under privileged society of Curitiba.

  18. Since 1989, Curitiba was the first city in Brazil to practice selective garbage collection by separating organic from inorganic waste. An average of 1,200 tons of organic waste and 30 tons of recyclable materials are collected daily. Curitiba’s gathered wastes are sent to a ‘Separation Station’ under municipal authority. Most employees at the station are people who are illiterate or under special care from drug addiction. At the station, collected wastes are further divided into categories to be sold to private recycling companies. The revenue of the station even provides a surplus to be spent upon providing special care programmes for their employees. For example, there are tutorial sessions on computer-science by computers that have been made out of the materials found in the waste separation process. Furthermore wood found in the separation process are exchanged for bricks with private companies. These bricks are donated to the under privileged people to build sustainable homes. Curitiba’s recycling system in turn also effectively provides employment to the less affluent citizens that are illiterate or have no education to compete in the economic market.

    Another group that benefits from municipal assistance with recyclable materials are the ‘Ecociudadanas’ cooperatives. The government provides groups of 20 to 25 citizens, mostly women, with a physical space to keep, select, compress and sell the recyclable materials they collect. Today Ecociudadanas collect over 80% of rubbish in the central city and gain over twice the Brazilian minimum wage. Nine Ecociudadanas Cooperative Groups as of July 2008 existed, and given their successes, the local government is continuously opening more.

    Alongside these initiatives Curitiba has also established an industrial landfill through a public-private partnership near assigned industrial development areas. At the landfill site, toxic wastes are neutralized and reused for other materials such as cement production. Currently Curitiba has also introduced a particular process for clinical and hospital waste to be sterilized before being sent to the organic landfills.
    In conclusion, Curitiba has demonstrated that necessity incentives and systematic approaches to behavioral changes are more successful than words, regulations or policies within planning documents. Curitiba’s success of sustainable recycling initiatives can be dedicated to its governmental leadership of working for and with the citizens. Valuing and acknowledging the power of citizen input, showing how environmental initiatives can be achieved alongside economic preferences and community empowerment, achieving a “win-win” situation. This success story of Curitiba significantly highlights that there are cost-effective solutions towards tackling environmental chokes upon cities. That sustainable living is achievable, not just a utopian dream. All it takes is empowerment between the government, citizens and entrepreneurs


    What comes to mind when you think about our urban environments? Are they a place of natural beauty or a jungle of concrete?
    We have reached the point in New Zealand where there are more people living in the urban environment than in a rural context. This has significant implications on how we accommodate for the growth of population in our town centres, not only on the built form but also the need to keep people in contact with nature.
    The focus of this article is the role of parks and green open space in the urban environment and the contribution they have to people’s health and wellbeing as a part of urban sustainability. The city of Ottawa, Canada, will be used to illustrate the successful integration of open space into the urban environment.

    Urban Sustainability

    Urban sustainability is a board concept. It includes the creation of harmony in our cities; between people and the services that they are able to access, and the relationship they maintain with the natural environment.
    It is about creating a quality of life, contributing to the health and well-being of those living in the urban environment.

    Where did all the concrete come from?

    An important question to think about is how have we ended up with cities that have turned their backs on the natural world and embraced all that is man made?
    Once cities developed organically, the natural, humanistic and built elements of the environment knitting together in such a way they almost raise out of the landscape.
    The modern city is an expression of the industrial revolution, the mechanist approach to life flowing into the approach to planning; dealing with the science of the city, percentages of open space, standardised road patterns and zoning controls.
    We need to move back to the organic approach to planning; allowing the natural and built environment to come together at the human scale.


  20. Human Health and Wellbeing and the Natural Environment

    The presence of nature has a number of key benefits to the health and wellbeing of a person.
    Apart from the environmental services that green spaces in the city play such as air and water purification numerous studies have shown that the natural environment has a positive influence on psychological and mental health . It is the silent and timeless atmosphere of natural environments that one can forget their daily worries, breathe fresh air and relax both mentally and physically.

    A North American perspective on urban green spaces:

    Ottawa, Canada
    Ottawa has a population of 812,000 people and covers a land area of 2,778 Km2. The metropolitan area of Ottawa has a well connected network of urban and suburban open space; the result of early visionary planners creating frameworks for open space planning. The greenbelt that surrounds the city was originally planned as a barrier to urban sprawl but now also acts as a connection in the web of Ottawa’s open space.
    In 1991 a greenway plan was developed for Ottawa which specified twenty corridors consisting of five components- environmentally sensitive areas, waterway corridors, linkages, major open spaces, and agriculture areas . This plan advocates a variety of parks to be developed emphasising small urban park spaces for their ability to connect with larger ones. It is also incorporates areas that promote ecological integrity without the potential of damage from human use.
    Recreation is a key component of Ottawa’s approach to planning for green urban space. Providing places for people to enjoy in a variety of ways. From passive recreation, just sitting and enjoying the natural beauty, to active participation such as walking or biking.
    It is the seamless integration of the natural environment into the built that should be taken from this city. Even in winter when the Rideau Canal freezes over, it becomes a roadway of ice in the middle of the city, packed with ice skaters, including people commuting to and from work.


    It is hopeful thinking to regard our urban environments as places of natural beauty because of a few trees nestled amongst our towering buildings, busy roads and kilometres of paved ground.
    It is possible to change this
    The benefits of the presence of green spaces in cities are numerous, especially the benefits to human health. Bringing nature back into the city and developing spaces for people to reacquaint themselves with it is taking another step towards achieving urban sustainability.

    Reference List
    Barlett, P. F. (2005) Urban place: reconnecting with the natural world Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, MIT Press. p 299-315

    Chiesura, A. (2004) The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning. vol 68, p 129-138

    Dunnett, N. Swanwick, C. Woolleym H. (2002) Improving Urban Parks, Play Areas and Green Spaces. . London, England, The Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions.

    Erickson, D. (2006) MetroGreen : connecting open space in North American cities, Washington, USA, Island Press. p 105-138

    Harnik, P. (2009) Urban Parks. Landscape Architecture, Vol 99:5, p 30-40.

    Roseland, M. (1997) Eco-city dimensions: healthy communities, healthy planet Gabriola Island, Canada, New Society Publishers. p 14-24

    Statistics Canada (2006) Community Profiles, Statistics Canada, Accessed Online: 25th August 2009, http://www12.statcan.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/prof/92-591/Details/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=3506008&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Ottawa&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=&GeoCode=3506008

  21. Xizheng Wang (ID:4644700)October 11, 2009 at 5:24 PM

    Danwei: Chinese Approach to Mixed Use Development

    "Danwei” is a generic term denoting the socialist working place in China (Bray, 2005:3). The word can be literally translated as “unit” or “work unit. However, it has a lot more than a place to work.

    Features of a Danwei

    A Danwei usually occupies a large urban block, and most of them are walled.
    The most dominant feature of Danwei is the job-housing relationship. Every Danwei must contain a workplace (mostly state owned), providing employment for residents, and residential buildings provided to the workers as part of the “company benefit” or welfare. A larger Danwei will also contain some basic social services such as school, clinic and commercial development like grocery shops to provide people’s daily needs.

    History & Today

    Danwei emerged from 1949 when the communists took over control of the country. The Danwei philosophy is based on a mix of Chinese Confucian and Soviet planning system (Bray: 2005: 7 15). Danwei is popular in Chinese cities during its socialist era (1949 – 1976). It was virtually the only type of employment provider in Chinese cities, and has grown to gain governance functions, providing Danwei residents social services and welfare (Björklund, 1986; Bray, 2005). Danwei has been referred as “urban village” because it had also become the basic governance unit in Chinese cities (Lu, 2006: 68).

    However, after the country’s market reform the influence of Danwei is in fast decline. The disintegration between job and housing has destroyed the essence of a Danwei. Many Chinese now live in homes far away from their working places (Wang, D. and Chai, Y. 2009: 30-1).

    Benefits and trade-offs

    The original objective of Danwei was not intentionally targeted at mixed use development and urban sustainability. However, features of a Danwei do provide us the knowledge on how to achieve a more sustainable development today.

  22. Xizheng Wang (ID:4644700)October 11, 2009 at 5:25 PM

    (Continue from previous comment)

    Urban Design

    A resident in Danwei can usually access his/her daily needs within the same Danwei, except very large Danwei, this is achieved within the walking distance. This significantly reduces the pressure on City’s transport system as there is little need for commuting. Many scholars have observed that Danwei has significantly reduced Chinese cities’ demand on motorized modes of travel (including public transport modes). In 1970s when Chinese cities were dominated by Danwei, there were very few cars; even buses on the road, most people use more sustainable type of transport such as walk or bicycle (Wang, D. and Chai, Y. 2009: 37).


    Danwei is also beneficial to low income population. It provides an integrated solution that covers housing and basic social and economic welfare to the employees. However, it must be noted that this was achieved in a society with highly planned economy, where many policy instruments are not available in a market economy.


    Residents of a Danwei also tend to have a very strong sense of community. This is because all people, from general manager to worker, live and work within same Danwei and their children all go to the same school (if that Danwei has provided one), people are more likely to know each other in a Danwei environment.
    People know each other well in a Danwei, however, “too well”, sometimes. Residents in Danwei have very little anonymity (Lu 2006: 68-9) as everything they do in public is under watch by other which know them. This benefits the security of a Danwei (Lu 2006: 68) as anyone could easily spot an unfamiliar face. However, Danwei residents has very little feeling that they belong to a wider society as their contact with the “outside” is very limited (Lu 2006: 68), and sometimes restricted for political reasons.

    Lessons to be learnt

    Danwei has shown its incredible ability to reduce urban traffic, contribute to urban sustainability and reduce energy consumption. However, it should also be noted that, Danwei is a product of socialist China where the economy, even people’s personal life is highly planned and regulated. At that time, Chinese people’s movement is restricted, and the State controls nearly every part of life.

    In New Zealand, government does not have the necessary power and policy instruments to implement a Danwei style development, and it is predictable that public opinion will not be too welcome a socialist urban development happening in their backyard. Therefore it is very unlikely to see a copy of Danwei development in New Zealand.

    However, lessons can be learnt from Danwei. Danwei’s model of integrate employment, housing, and social life together could be used to provide unemployed/ low income population the income and living standards they need.
    Core of the Danwei concept can be achieved in New Zealand. By providing high density residential area close to employment area, along with other policy instruments and benefits, planners will hopefully encourage people to live close to their employment, thus reducing the cost and environment consequences associated with vehicle traffic.


    Björklund, E.M., 1986. The Danwei: Socio-spatial Characteristics of Work Units in China’s Urban Society. Economic Geography 62 (1), 19–29.
    Bray, D. 2005. Social Space and Governance in Urban China: The Danwei System from Origin to Reform, Stanford: Stanford University Press
    Friedmann, J.2005. China’s Urban Transition, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press
    Kim, J. 1987. China's Current Housing Issues and Policies. Journal of the American Planning Association, 53(2): 220- 226
    Lu, D. 2006. Remaking Chinese Urban Form. Oxfordshire: Rouledge
    Wang, D., Chai, Y. 2009. The Job-housing Relationship and Commuting in Beijing, China: the Legacy of Danwei. Journal of Transport Geography, 17: 30-38

  23. Food Sustainability in North America

    By Alex Fraser

    When thinking about Urban Sustainability, the historical focus has been on issues surrounding transport, the environment and housing1. However, in North America, there is a growing recognition of the importance of food sustainability. For instance, in 2005, at the American Planning Association (APA) National Planning Conference, food planning sessions were held for the first time in its history1. The increasing recognition is in response to trends in the agriculture and food systems within America three of which will be discussed below.

    Grossly inefficient food system
    The American method of food production is inefficient. A typical farm, in producing 1 kcal of food energy will use 3 kcal of fossil energy in generating it 2. The method of processing accounts for approximately 1/3 of the energy spent in the food system as a whole, and each calorie of that processed food will consume 1000 calories of energy2.

    Globalisation of food
    The globalization of food is a trend where more and more food is grown in areas distant from where it will eventually be consumed. It has been calculated that, on average, fresh produce in North America travels 1600 miles (2414 km)2. This is partly because 90% of all the fresh vegetables consumed in America are grown in the San Joaquin Valley in California3. This concentration of growth of particular foodstuffs occurs in other parts of the country including the western plains where wheat is grown, and the midwest which is known as the “corn belt”4. This type of agriculture is only made possible through the use of fossil fuels to transport the food products around the country, and around the world 4.

    Loss of farmland
    Incautious land use in America including the conversion of farmland to urban areas, is taking place at an astonishing pace. The American Farmland Trust has calculated that every minute, two acres of land are lost to development. The problem is not that growth occurs but rather that it is happening in an unsustainable way 5. The land that is the most fertile and productive is being developed faster than the marginal land, 55% of which is being converted into 10+ acre housing lots 5.

    What is being done
    Awareness is increasing within America that food sustainability is an important issue that needs to be addressed. The APA in 2007 released a “Policy Guide on Community and Regional Food Planning” 1. This guide sets out the current issues facing planning in America and outlined seven policies suggesting ways in which issues around food may be adopted into existing planning activities.

    A movement within America which seeks to work against these food related trends is the Slow Food Movement, founded in 1986 6. By the middle of 2005, there were 140 chapters of this movement in the United States with goals which include preserving locally owned businesses and farms and ensuring they remain operational6.

    Another trend that is gaining popularity in America is the idea of Community Supported Agriculture (CSA). CSAs support a more local and fair system of agriculture. A group of individuals support a farm financially, and in return receive a portion of the harvest7. This method of farming helps to promote locally grown produce, reducing the distance the food must travel thus making this method much more environmentally sustainable.

    New Zealand Context
    These issues surrounding food sustainability are also relevant to New Zealand, particularly the issue of globalisation. New Zealand is distantly located from all other countries in the world and yet also both imports and exports a significant amount of food. Much of what can be bought in supermarkets was not grown locally but in fact has been imported from overseas.

  24. London has the worst air pollution of any city in the UK and among the worst in Europe. The road traffic is the biggest source of the pollution. Over one million Londoners live in the areas that exceed the statutory air quality limits.
    Poor air condition is dangerous to health, and pollution has to be minimized to improve the air quality to make the air safer to breathe. Therefore from 4th February 2008, the Low Emission Zone has been introduced by Transport for London. (Lombard, n.d)

    A low emission zone (LEZ) is a geographically defined area which seeks to restrict or deter access by specific polluting vehicles or only allow low or zero emission vehicles, with the aim of improving the air quality. There are over 70 cities and towns in 8 countries around Europe operate or preparing LEZ to regulate on air pollution, which means the vehicles, may be banned or charged if they enter the LEZ when their emissions are over a certain level. Regulation on different vehicles is varied depending on the local conditions. The LEZs mainly targeting on heavy duty vehicles, some affect diesel vans, others also affect diesel and petrol cars. (Transport for London, n.d)

    United Kingdom is not the first county adopted the Low Emission Zone strategy; however it is the largest one in the world and is in force 24 hours a day, seven days a week, each day of the year. The zone covers most of Greater London, which the most polluting diesel-engine vehicles are required to meet specific emissions standards. Otherwise, they will need to pay a daily charge. (Figure 1) The Low Emission Zone does not include the M25, even though it passes within the boundary of the zone. (Transport for London, n.d) The M25 can be used by drivers as a diversionary route to decide whether they wish to avoid the zone
    The vehicles affected by the LEZ are older diesel-engine lorries, buses, coaches, large vans, minibuses and other heavy vehicles that are derived from lorries and vans, such as motor caravans and motorised horse boxes. The vehicles registered outside of Great Britain are included as well. (London, 2008)

    There are signs showing to make it clear for the drivers to know when they are approaching or entering the zone. When drivers entering the LEZ, there are signs positioned at, or near, all zone entry points, there are no barriers or tollbooths. Once the vehicle within the LEZ, there are signs on the main road, to remind the drivers that they are in the zone that the scheme is enforced by cameras. On Major approaches to the M25, there are advance warning signs indicate the position of the LEZ boundary, allowing the driver to choose entering M25. Closer to the boundary itself, signs are posted to indicate a route to avoid entering the LEZ. (Transport for London, n.d)

  25. There are also cameras checks your vehicle registration number plate against a database to ensure the vehicle meets the emissions standards. There are also database and other sources available to identify a vehicle’s emissions level. (Visit Britain, n.d)
    Vehicles do not meet the specified emissions standard for the LEZ have several options to comply with the scheme, vehicle owners have to provide document certifying that an eligible engine meets the required standard; fitting approved particulate abatement equipment that can lower the carbon emissions to the vehicle; replace the engine with the ones that meet the low emission standards; converting a vehicle to gas; purchasing another vehicle that meets the LEZ emission standards, last of all a daily charge has to be paid, if no action has been taken. (Transport for London)
    There are strengths and weaknesses in regard to LEZ. LEZ is the most effective way to lower the green house emission as it minimizes the number of vehicles with high emission levels on the road. Therefore, better air quality level is achieved and minimizes the effects on global warming. Under the LEZ, people with high emission vehicles are forced to replace the engine to a low emission one, or replace the vehicle to a low emission vehicle. Hence the disposal of immediate large amount of old vehicles in London would contribute to negative environment effects.

    Reference List
    Lombard, n.d.Low Emission Zone. Retrieved on 23th Aug 2009 from:

    London, 2008. London’s poor air quality tackled with launch of Low Emission Zone. Retrieved on 23th Aug 2009 from:

    Transport for London, n.d. Low Emission Zone. Retrieved on 23thAug2009 from: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/roadusers/lez/

    Visit Britain, n.d.Low Emission Zone. Retrieved on 23th Aug 2009 from:

  26. I found the articles everyone posted every interesting. the diversity of topics covered reached a broad scope of issues facing cities around the world. thanks everyone for contributing your articles i found them highly useful for the second assignment

  27. Topic: Urban Sustainability in Shanghai City

    1. Introduction
    Shanghai, as a super international city, has more high skyscrapers and modern buildings. However, recently, many people doubt this kind of modernization is if healthy and sustainable. This article shows what is urban sustainability and uses Shanghai as a classic example to analyze its existing problems and how to change the situation. Also, it provides the short brief of history about Shanghai City Urban Development.
    2. Principle of urban sustainability
    Urban sustainability means making the urban development and management to “improve the quality of life of a population within the capacity of Earth’s finite resource (The Science Museum, 2004)” in the present and protect, sustain and promote the potential of natural and physical resources to meet the reasonably foreseeable needs of future generations. Also, during the urban construction, it might to safeguard the life-supporting capacity of air, water, soil, and ecosystems. Moreover, the principle requires all actions should avoid, remedy and mitigate any adverse effects of activities on the environment.

    3. History of Shanghai City Urban Development
    Shanghai, as the so-called “space of flows”-(economic, political and social) within a scant 160 years of ostensibly modern development, is clearly shown this city has been perceived as either a negative model of development due to three fluctuant times which was Qing Dynasty, Nationalist Government Period and early of the People’s Republic Government Period.

    Qing Dynasty – “these urban communities had no municipal governments, no central self-governing bodies distinct from the countryside.” In the other words, there was no any specifically urban plan for developing in the future. Later on, although Qing governments made some “planning” of shanghai, this was negotiated by the regional daotai. That means the plan is not practical and feasible or we can say it is unplanned.

    Nationalist Government- Although Nationalist Government seems much better than Qing Government, it start to make the urban plan for shanghai which was called “Great Shanghai Plan” (da shanghai jihua). Due to World War II and the corruption of governments, this plan was also failure of the process.

    Early term of People’s Republic Government- It was touted as a model of socialist development that the rest of China’ cities were exhorted to emulate. However, due to the post-World War II and civil war, too much large infrastructures need to be reconstructed in priority. Therefore, the government also missed concern of systemic urban planning.

    Real modernization was starting after 1978 which governments reformed and moved towards “market socialism” and a transnational economy. Planners and reformers turn the focus on the real urban planning which learnt from the overseas. (Kerrie M., n.d)
    4. Issues and problem of Shanghai Urban Development
    In the past decade, Shanghai has huge change for urban development, in particular of skyscrapers. Now after the vigorous urban renovation work, Shanghai is called “Eastern New York”. Recent “statistics show that by the end of 2002, Shanghai had a total of 4,916 tall buildings, of which 2,800 were over 18 storeys high” (Shanghai Star, 2003). And this number would be continuously increased in the following years.

    This has been a very serious problem because of many negative effects caused by densely packed skyscrapers. They are tending to affect the traffic congestion, daily needs of large population (such as water and electricity), and even the buildings subsidence to endanger to flooding protection, gas & water pipe and even high risks for the tunnels. Now the Municipal Congress has decided to move to amend urban planning regulations and to limit the number of tall buildings in the downtown area. However, the sudden reversal in the eyes of many Chinese is seemed a little bit late. (Shanghai Star, 2003)

    (To be continuing...)

  28. Also, in a foreign researcher’s opinions, Shanghai’s development can be concluded that China is missing an opportunity to deliver something so much better and more sustainable, because too many old buildings including some importance of heritage values were demolished and government’s view is only focused on the improvement of present people’s life. (Rob I., Wen L. & Matthew C., 2006)
    5. How can we do for Shanghai’s urban development?
    1. Reasonable Controlling – Limit the number of tall building construction;
    2. Equal developing - Transferring the development from central downtown area to spread into large rural areas;
    3. Historical regarding- Take more concerns about old buildings. Avoid, remedy and mitigate to loss of heritage value from the urban development;
    4. Regulation amending- Reform, change or amend the regulation of the urban planning. Make the practical and feasible systemic urban planning regulation;
    5. Equity of future generation – Focus the sustainable development on the future generation. Under the pre-caution of improving of present citizen’s life quality, trying to promote and maintain the much more natural and physical resources for further generation;
    6. Case study – research more overseas case study and do more observations about local condition, using the real practice works with the theories of urban sustainability.
    6. Conclusion
    Although Shanghai is still called “Eastern New York”, the concerns of more and more people are not only on the modern buildings and high quality of life now. They more focus on the city if can be sustained in the future and their further generations. Therefore, urban sustainability is the only key for the modernization in the current world.

    7. References
    J O’Connell, M. (2003), Urban Sustainability Worldwide: An Information Resource for Urban Practitioners, Ministry for the Environment: Wellington. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From:

    The Science Museum, (2004), Urban sustainability: Cities and the role of technology, Making The Modern World: Winchester. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From:

    Linder, M. (n.d), Creative Urban Sustainability. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From:

    Shanghai Star, (2003), Shanghai's high anxiety, China Daily. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From:

    Imrie, R., Lin, W. & Caemona, M. (2006), Shanghai’s Urban Development, Town and country planning. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From:

    MacPherson, K. (n.d), Shanghai’s History: Back to the future, Harvard Asia Pacific Review. Retrieved on 27th August, 09 From: