Monday, October 7, 2013

Blog 10: Islam and Planning

What are the three Islamic world-view principles and six decision-making principles? Why do you think it is difficult for poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions?

31 comments:

  1. The three Islamic world-view principles are Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful), all of which illustrate religion is at the center of Islamic world-view. Similarly, a hierarchy exists in Islamic decision making principles, where the “protection of religion” is prioritized and followed by the protection of other factors including life, mind, future generation, wealth and the environment. The ability for poor to change their living conditions in informal settlements has been limited mainly due to the centralized and hierarchic decision-making system. People at a lower level were not given enough rights for effective participation. Moreover, the feeling of powerlessness by the poor and the high cost for them to be involved in decision-making process further restrict them from improving their living conditions.

    Li Tianhang
    2792873

    ReplyDelete
  2. The 3 Islamic world-view principles are Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). The 6 decision making principles are called Maqasid al Shariah and they are;
    • Protection of religion (hifdh al din)
    • Protection of life (hifdh al nafs)
    • Protection of mind (hifdh al ‘aql)
    • Protection of progeny(hifdh al nasl)
    • Protection of wealth (hifdh al maal )
    • Protection of environment (hifdh al bei’at
    The Islamic form of urban planning is different to the western. It is highly centralized with very little or no public participation at all. The opportunity for people to complain exists however this feedback does not have to be taken into consideration by Planning authorities. Where conflicts may arise the clerical arm of governance may become involved and they examine the issues from a religious perspective before they issue their decision or decree. For people who live in slums, the barriers they face are huge. They are in the slums because they have no land of their own and are unable to afford any. They have no rights, a majority of slum dwellers are immigrants to the city and have no support structure in place for them. They in effect are dispossessed and have no ability to participate. They are at the whim and mercy of the authorities who have the right to come in and tear their homes down, with no explanation. The authorities are also under no obligation to address their situation either. Finding solutions to their dilemma does not appear to be a matter that the authorities are interested in solving.

    Leonie Mullions
    1613765

    ReplyDelete
  3. The three Islamic world-view principles are Islam (submission), Iman, (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). These principles define the three stages of faith; to submit to God and follow his tenets, to believe in God and his kingdom, and to worship God as if you see him (to “do” what is beautiful). There are three groups of principles applied in Islamic decision-making: Maqasid al Shariah requires the protection of religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and the environment; Qawaid Shariah requires consideration of intention, certainty, injury, hardship and custom; Ta’lil requires investigation into an event’s causes and origins. Poor people in informal settlements struggle to influence their living conditions because they feel they have neither the religious nor mundane authority to make change, as most decision-making is centralised and the (illegitimate) landless poor have few rights and privileges to influence decisions.

    Tom Chi
    1813142

    ReplyDelete
  4. World view principles of the islamic religion (or culture?) are Islam (submission), Iman (faith to the religion and its teachings) and Ihsan (doing what is considered beautiful). The principles above define ones application to the religion and how much they truly value it. This is shown through the 3 stages of faith they have to the Islamic faith. The decision making principles include protecting the actual religion, mind, wealth, environment and etc. A hierarchy exists where protection of religion is central and should also be considered to its fullest extent. Poverty exists within the religion and those living in poverty find it difficult to move up the ladder due to financial and political restraints.

    Zak Nasir
    1262096

    ReplyDelete
  5. Religion is the centre of the Islamic world-view, however relgion is broken down into three dimensions. The 3 Islamic world-view principles are Islam (submission), Iman, (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). There are also 6 decision-making principles, which require the protection of: religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment. In light of these decision-making systems, it is difficult for poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions due to the hierarchical structure of this system. More a less it comes down to the fact that the poorer people have limited opportunities to gain recognition during the decision-making processes due to financial strains and political qualms. Overall, this restricts them from active participation and without this input little is done to improve the living conditions of the poor.

    Kayla Versey
    1824263

    ReplyDelete
  6. Islam has three world view principles/dimensions called Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). They also have six principles that influence their decision making: Protection of religion (hifdh al din)
    Protection of life (hifdh al nafs)
    Protection of mind (hifdh al ‘aql)
    Protection of progeny(hifdh al nasl)
    Protection of wealth (hifdh al maal )
    Protection of environment (hifdh al bei’at)

    In Islamic countries it can be difficult for poorer people to be involved in decision making processes because of the highly centralized government. As the decision makers are so removed from the places that are being affected by their decisions they may tend to forget about the people there that must live with whatever changes are made. people also do not expect to be consulted with due to the history of non-consultation which has left them with a complacent attitude toward it. Also, when participation is facilitated it is only lower-end participation such as 'placation' which does not really change plans - so those that do participate soon begin to feel like it was a waste of their time and do not make the effort again. All of these problems are amplified for the poor because they have no land to fight for and have more pressing issues such as struggling to feed their families

    ReplyDelete
  7. The three Islamic world-view pronciples include Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). All these Islamic world-view have religion as the core.The Islamic decision making principles or Maqasid al Shariah principles are divided in six hierarchicallevels. They concern with:
    - Protection of religion
    - Protection of life
    - Protection of mind
    - Protection of progeny
    - Protection of wealth
    - Protection on environment
    In Islamic society it is difficult for poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions because of the administrative and decision making power are mainly vested in central goverment.People especially poor people do not have much power to participate in planning and decision making process and central government is not having enough attention on local needs of people. Also the hierarchic administrative system causes delays in decision making process.


    Thidarat Samart
    5962153

    ReplyDelete
  8. In Islamic nation-states, religion can be seen as the fundamental source and primacy of all urban management decisions. The unique Islamic Planning system is stylised by three world-view principles: Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (aesthetics) concerned to the planning matter at-hand. These principles are guided by six Masqasid-al-Shariah decision-making concepts ranked accordingly, in the protection of: religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and the environment. The Islamic perspective of urban-planning is heavily centralised and constrained to the extent in which poor people have been disadvantaged of their rights to participate in decision-making processes. As a result, informal-settlers perceive no such confidence in the system, because it poses great difficulty to inform change.

    • Source:
    Khodaparast, B. (2013). Planning 332 - Lecture 10: Islam and Planning. Planning 332 – Comparative Planning (Elective). University of Auckland – National Institute of Creative Arts and Industries, Auckland, New Zealand, unpublished

    Andrew Poon
    (ID: 5691154)

    ReplyDelete
  9. The Islamic world view is based upon a trichotomy of three core facets. Submission through the concept of Islam, faith through the concept of Iman, and doing what is considered beautiful through the concept Ihsan. Decision-making follow principles that are embedded in Islamic culture. Six of which include the protection of religion, life, mind, of decedents and family, protection of wealth and of the environment.

    The central government controls most decision making power in Iran, whilst the people maintain very little. The poorest people who live in informal settlements can find it particularly hard to be involved in decision-making as they have limited opportunity to do so. Furthermore, feelings of powerlessness and the costs versus the benefits of participating can limit the ability for the poorest to improve their living conditions.

    Andrew Miller
    5850354

    ReplyDelete
  10. The three Islamic world-view principles are focused on "Submission", "Faith" and "Do what is beautiful" along with six main decision-making principles which include; Protection of religion being first in the hierarchy, then comes Protection of life, Protection of mind, Protection of progeny, Protection of wealth, and lastly the Protection of environment.

    In a place like Islam, it is hard for poor people in informal settlements to achieve much positive change in their living conditions because of the centralised and hieratic administrative systems that slows down decision making processes and causes many inefficiency for the poor. This is because the lower level organisations have the less autonomy and authority and thus, enough attention is not given to the needs of local people as local authorities (who knows the communities best) are not the ones who makes the decisions for the people. Additionally, “money talks” in Islam, hence, the poor has very limited rights for effective participation and as a result, changes in living styles are hardly achieved.

    Miao Miao Zhen
    ID: 5690514

    ReplyDelete
  11. Religion is the core of the Islamic world-view, and encompasses three principles – Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). Similarly, the hierarchical decision-making principles of the Islamic state are headed by the notion of protection of religion, followed by the protection of life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment.

    The Islamic state is characterised by the dominance of central government and a lack of public participation opportunities within decision-making processes. These characteristics alone pose a significant challenge for the urban poor to initiate and achieve change, but the notions of recognition and authority pose an even greater challenge to those living in informal settlements. Without owning land and without formal employment, informal dwellers often struggle to be recognised as legal citizens, and thereby typically lack the authority and right to make themselves heard by even the local government, let alone those with the power to initiate change.

    Emma Chandler
    ID: 2920994

    ReplyDelete
  12. The Islamic world view principals are derived from religion as it is the core Islamic world view. They are Islam (submission), Iman (faith), Ihsan (doing what is beautiful).
    The Islamic decision making principles are; protection of religion, protection of life, protection of mind, protection of progeny, protection of wealth, protection of environment.
    There is a lack of public participation for those who are poor and they have feelings of powerlessness. The NGOs which are supposedly a tool for these poor to voice and achieve improvements in their living decisions are in fact troublesome and untrustworthy. They are restrictive in their social impacts, overcomplicated, uncoordinated and dependant on external actors for their effectiveness. This results in a difficulty for these people to be heard and improve their living conditions.

    Hannah Miln
    5533332

    ReplyDelete
  13. Religion is at the heart of the Islamic worldview, which comprises of three key principles; Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). The six hierarchical decision-making principles involve the notion of protecting a number of values and realms including; religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment.

    With decision-making power largely vested in central government and only minor functions being delegated to local councils, people are extremely limited in their opportunities to participate in planning and decision-making processes. This has resulted in insufficient attention being paid to the needs of poor people living in informal settlements and made it extremely difficult for them to improve their living conditions. People living in informal settlements also find it challenging to trust NGOs and are effectively left feeling powerless and daunted by the prospect of pushing for involvement in processes that could see an improvement in their quality of life.

    Michaela Davidson (2366284)

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  14. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  15. Religion is the core to the Islamic world view, this view encompasses three principles. These principles include Islam (submission), Iman, (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). The six decision making principles are called Maqasid al Shariah, they include the protection of religion (hifdh al din), protection of life (hifdh al nafs), protection of mind (hifdh al ‘aql), protection of progeny(hifdh al nasl), protection of wealth (hifdh al maal ), and protection of environment (hifdh al bei’at). The administrative system in Islamic states such as Iran are highly centralised and hierarchical, with little decision making opportunities given to local authorities. Poor people in informal settlements have limited rights and a lack of opportunities to participate in the decision making process. Without opportunities to be heard by local government, poor people in these settlements will very rarely be able to initiate any improvements to their living conditions.

    Teresa George
    5453260

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  16. The three Islamic world-view principles:
    • Islam (submission)
    • Iman (faith)
    • Ihsan (doing what is beautiful)
    Because the world-view is based on religion, protection of religion is a prioritised decision making principle. The others are the protection of life, mind, progeny, wealth, and environment.
    The inability for many poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions predominantly lies in their inability to become involved in decision making. Their voices are often unheard. However, there are many other specific reasons. Because many informal settlement dwellers in developing countries have migrated from rural communities, they often lack the skills or education to find employment in large, overpopulated cities.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Religion is the centre of the Islamic world-view which is divided into three principles; Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful).
    Within the Islamic planning system there are also six decision making principles that require protection of: religion (hifdh al din), life (hifdh al nafs), mind (hifdh al ‘aql), progeny (hifdh al nasl), wealth (hifdh al maal ) and the environment (hifdh al bei’at).
    I think that it is difficult for lower income residents living in informal settlements to improve their living conditions as the planning and governmental decisions are largely centralised and hierarchical, even at a local level. As a result, people are unable to easily participate in decision making processes.

    Source:
    Khodaparast, Bahareh. “Islam and Planning”. Lecture 10, Planning 332, The University of Auckland, October 7, 2013.

    Sophie Waldron
    2719473

    ReplyDelete
  18. The Islam religion has three world-view principles – Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful) – and six decision-making principles – protection of religion, protection of life, protection of mind, protection of progeny, protection of wealth, and protection of the environment. What makes it difficult for poor people to change their living conditions is the fact that they are not given the opportunity to participate in planning decisions, and thus their opinions and concerns are excluded. What makes this worse is the fact that the government is highly centralised, which means that those who do make the decisions are often too indifferent to, or unfamiliar with, the poor people’s situation to be able to make effective and substantial changes.

    Tianhang Liu
    5850944

    ReplyDelete
  19. At the centre of the Islamic world view are the three main religious principles of Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). In addition to these, there are six principles with in the planning system requiring protection of religion (hifdh al din), life (hifdh al nafs), mind (hifdh al ‘aql), progeny (hifdh al nasl), wealth (hifdh al maal ) and the environment (hifdh al bei’at).
    In order to achieve change in living conditions, we must (a) feel capable of achieving this change, and (b) our voices must be heard. The centralised and hierarchical processes and systems associated with Islam make these two requirements nearly impossible for lower-class or marginalised citizens.

    George Winship
    5578661

    ReplyDelete
  20. Central to the Islamic world-view are three principles; Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). These principles are reflected in the six decision making principles of Islam; protection of religion, protection of life, protection of mind, protection of progeny, protection of wealth and protection of environment.
    People living in informal settlements experience a lot of difficulty in achieving change to their poor living conditions because they feel a certain level of alienation or isolation from the decision making process. Encouraging participation in the decision making process among residents of informal settlements is a challenge due to a lack of opportunity to voice their concerns and because they feel as though their contribution is not worthy or will not be given thoughtful consideration. These people often rely on other groups in the community such as the Islamic councils etc... to voice their concerns on their behalf.
    In instances where there has been participation, no meaningful outcomes have come to fruition, diminishing the faith these people have in governance.

    ReplyDelete
  21. The three Islamic world-view principles are Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). These principles heavily revolve around religion, and are the three stages to one’s faithfulness to the religion (first to submit, then to have faith, and lastly to worship God. The 6 decision making principles are protection of religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth, and environment.
    Decision making power in Islam is concentrated in the central government, and poor people living in informal settlements have limited opportunity to take part in decision making processes, they do not have the large amount of money that is needed to have an influence on the decision making process. Also, due to the structure of the government, there are often delays in decision making processes. Therefore, it is difficult for poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions.

    Melissa Chen
    1638911

    ReplyDelete
  22. The three Islamic world-view principles that defines decision-making are Islam (submission), Iman, (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). These principles can be achieved through protecting religion (hifdh al din) , life (hifdh al nafs), mind (hifdh al ‘aql), progeny(hifdh al nasl), wealth (hifdh al maal ), and the environment (hifdh al bei’at). The hierarchical political structure, and the centralised power of the government limits citizen participation in decision-making. Slum dwellers live in fear of government intervention to their illegal homes, preferring to distance themselves from decision-making authorities. Additionally, the participatory process is limited and costly, making it even more difficult for the poor living in informal settlements to change their living conditions.

    Angela Yang
    1570662

    ReplyDelete
  23. Islamic world-view based on three fundamental principles, which are: Islam (submission), Iman(faith), and Ihsan(doing what is beautiful). Those principles not only frame the Islamic world-view, but also constitute the source of the objectives and the strategy of human life. The six hierarchical decision making principles (Maqasid al Shariah principles) of the Islamic state are including: protection of religion (hifdh al din), life (hifdh al nafs), mind (hifdh al ‘aql), progeny (hifdh al nasl), wealth (hifdh al maal), and protection on environment (hifdh al bei’at). The decision power to pass the laws in Islam is only in the central government. The strong Centralization and hierarchic slow down the process of decision-making. The poor people under Islam bureaucratic government has limited citizen participated obligation and lack of opportunity to take part in the decision making process. Therefore, poor people living in informal settlements and under serviced township unable to pass their options into decision making and difficult to change their conditions.
    Source: Khodaparast, Bahareh. Lecture 10 “Islam and Planning”. Planning 332, University of Auckland, 07.10.2013

    Fei Hua
    5774072

    ReplyDelete
  24. The Islamic world-view is centred on region, following three key principles; Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). When it comes to decision-making, six hierarchical principles are used to protect a range of values. They are the protection of:

    -religion
    - life
    - mind
    - progeny
    - wealth
    - environment

    It is difficult for poor people in informal settlements to achieve change in their living conditions as these powers reside in a highly centralised government. Historically, there has been no emphasis or reason for the government to take much consideration of the poorer areas of Islamic countries. This ongoing exclusion results in expectations for the poor people to accept and continue their living conditions, as did generations before them. Coupled with the lack of means or resources to unite and create social change this makes it very difficult for these settlements to develop.

    John McCall
    5758304

    ReplyDelete
  25. Religion is at the core of the Islamic world-view, which has three dimensions:
    • Islam- submission
    • Iman –faith
    • Ihsan -doing what is beautiful
    Decision making is guided by the protection of the following six principles: religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment.
    In Iran for example, the above principles, combined with the highly centralised governance system have given rise to issues involving the management of informal settlements and their residents. The poor are left on the outskirts of both cities and decision making, unable to change their living conditions. This is due to them having very few rights, which are largely ignored by authorities, as well as an overall ideology that they do not and cannot interfere in planning matters.

    ReplyDelete
  26. The Islamic world-view is based on 3 principles of Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). There are also the 6 Maqasid al Shariah principles of decision-making, which protect of religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment.
    In most Islamic countries planning processes follow the Islamic word-view and decision-making principles mentioned above and therefore have a centralised administrative system. So in countries like Iran, even decisions on local issues are taken in Tehran and not much importance is given to public participation or the local needs of people. Therefore, it is difficult for poor people to achieve change in their living conditions.

    Manasi Vaidya
    ID: 5985611

    ReplyDelete
  27. Religion resides at the core of the Islamic worldview, which consists of three key principles. These are: Islam (submission), Iman (faith) and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful). Relative to these key principles is a hierarchy of 6 decision-making principles: Protection of religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and the environment.
    The living situation of the poor in informal settlements faces very little change, as the poor have little say in what happens with regard to decision-making, and the poor are neglected and excluded. They continue on with the cycle, as they are born into it and it is the only way of living they know. They also have very limited resources, and cannot achieve change by themselves.

    Jared Bartlett
    5695331

    ReplyDelete
  28. The core of the Islam world is related to its religion, in which it is separated into three dimensions.

    • Islam (submission)
    • Iman (faith)
    • Ihsan (doing what is beautiful)

    In relation to its worlds view are its six hierarchal decisions making principles

    1. Protection of religion
    2. Protection of life
    3. Protection of mind
    4. Protection of progeny
    5. Protection of wealth
    6. Protection of environment

    In Islam, the decision making process and governmental system is highly centralised. As a result of this governing system, poor people in informal settlement areas have little chance of changing their living condition. Administrative process of Islam occurs in the political center in which normal people do not have a chance of participating or expressing their needs. In addition people could not participate in election of local authorities and election of local organisation. Most administrative power is held within central government’s hand, they do not pay enough attention to local people’s needs. This results in the overall feeling of powerless of poor people to fight for change in their living condition.

    ReplyDelete
  29. The three Islamic world- view principles are Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (doing what is beautiful).
    The six decision- making principles are the protection on of; religion, life, mind, progeny, wealth and environment.
    A characteristic of the Islamic state is the dominance of central government power in conjunction with limited opportunities for public participation. For the poor, especially those living in informal settlements power to make change is as a result very difficult. Opportunities to make changes are further limited when lack of land ownership and employment means they struggle to be heard by local and central governments and are often not recognised as legal citizens. NGOs are set up supposedly to support people in these circumstances but these organisations are often deemed untrustworthy and so are left powerless and insufficient attention for the poor continues.

    Kirsten Wood
    1834103

    ReplyDelete
  30. Islam is one of the world's largest religions and follows the teachings of Muhammad. Islam is constructed of three world view principles which are:

    - Submission
    - Faith (Iman)
    - Doing what is beautiful (Ihsan)

    These worldviews influence the decision making process in Islamic nations. The decision making process has six tiers, the first being the most important:

    1. Religious protection
    2. Protection of Life
    3. Protection of the mind
    4. Protection of Progeny
    5. Wealth Protection
    6. Environmental Protection

    The decision making process is highly centralised, making it difficult for for the poor to have input and influence ideas.

    Thomas Morrison

    5697521

    ReplyDelete
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