Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Rapid population growth in Nigeria


Nigeria’s urban population is expanding rapidly. What are the particular planning issues posed by such an expansion, and give an example of how you might respond to them.

32 comments:

  1. Nigeria has one of the fastest rates of urbanization in the world. Its rapidly growing urban population creates numerous planning issues that require long-term responses. Some of these issues include:

    • Increased pressure on transport infrastructure (particularly due to the high dependence on private vehicles).
    • Environmental degradation.
    • Overcrowding and resulting health issues.
    • Inadequate provision of social and physical infrastructure.

    One of the most significant issues is the lack of appropriate housing. This has resulted in the growth of ‘urban slums’ and has greatly accelerated poverty. As the urban population expands, so to, will the unhealthy and poor environmental conditions that result from inadequate housing provision.

    One response to the issue of housing and the growth of slums is an “…approach that is pro-poor and inclusive, and that places the creation of livelihoods at the centre of planning efforts (Watson, 2009. p. 2260).” It is important that government planning for housing includes consultation and awareness of those who need it most. As Jiboya writes, if planning policies and development strategies are to succeed they need to be rooted in the “…cultural, climatic, socio-economic circumstances of people… (2011. p. 182).”


    Watson. V. 2009, “Seeing from the south: refocusing, urban planning on the globes central urban issues.” Urban Studies, 46 (11), pp. 2259-2275.

    Jiboye. A. 2011, “Urbanization challenges and housing delivery in Nigeria: The need for effective Policy framework for Sustainable Development.” International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2 (1), pp. 176-185

    ReplyDelete
  2. Samantha Gibbs: 1445642September 28, 2012 at 12:01 PM

    The population of Nigeria has rapidly expanded over the last 25 years, leading to planning issues in densely populated cities such as Lagos. Lagos has a population of around 9 million, with a diverse array of ethnic identities and cultures within the Nigerian home of commerce and education. The key issues faced by a city as densely populated as Lagos include:
    - Health and overcrowding issues.
    - Environmental degradation and resource management issues.
    - Land use and infrastructure requirements under severe strain.
    In order to deal with the issues present, Lagos has attempted to combat environmental degradation, infrastructure requirements and overcrowding by producing a proposal called the Lagos Mega City Project. In this sense, the Nigerian federal government and Lagos Local Councils have attempted to respond to the issues of expansion by reducing and redeveloping slum areas, improve and increase roading infrastructure and beatify the city. As a response to rapid expansion, I believe the path Lagos is taking is an appropriate step and may help other Nigerian cities produce plans and strategies to combat their own expansion issues. Producing a similar plan for Abuja, to prevent such planning issues occurring, may be another appropriate way to help control population expansion.
    ADEOYE,A.(2010). Lagos State Geo-information Infrastructure Policy (LAGIS) As a Tool for Mega City Development: Opportunities and Challenges.Nigeria;Lagos State Government

    ReplyDelete
  3. Currently, 43% of Nigeria’s 140 million-strong population live in urban areas and this is expected to increase to over 60% by 2025 (Jiboye,2011). This rapid urbanisation is coupled with a rapidly deteriorating physical and living environment. One of the major features of Nigerian cities is urban sprawl and this is characterised by haphazard squatter developments. These areas lack essential infrastructure such as drinking water, electricity, healthcare and educational facilities. Problems such as waste disposal, traffic congestion, overcrowding, and unsanitary living conditions also pose threats to health (Olujimi,2009).
    Present planning controls to solve these problems (such as the Land Use Act 1978 and Regional Planning Act 1992) are outdated, uncoordinated and weakly implemented (Aribigbola,2008,p13). A more integrated land use approach is required to place a check on urban sprawl that reflects global sustainable development thinking. This includes greater public participation, improved public transport provision and enforceable land use controls.
    A more radical approach is suggested by Owoade (2007,p31) who argues that rural conditions should be improved so that “rural areas become attractive and ultimately slow down the rate of urban-rural migration”.
    The challenge is implementing these solutions in the face of such a rapidly growing population.

    References:
    Aribigbola, A. 2008. Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    Jiboye, A. 2011. Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    Owoade, A. 2007. Rapid urbanisation and coping strategies: the case of Lagos, Nigeria. [Online]. Available: http://www.infra.kth.se/bba/MASTER%20THESISES/AbbasFinalfinal.pdf. Accessed: 28/9/12.

    Michael - 1612148

    ReplyDelete
  4. Urbanisation is occurring at a rapid rate in Nigeria. This growth has not been matched by a corresponding change in social, economic, and technological development, which poses obvious planning issues. Some of the key issues include:
    - Urban congestion or overcrowding characterises the housing in urban centres. This creates insanitary conditions, causing health issues.
    - Lack of public infrastructure and social services.
    - Environmental degradation.
    - High unemployment rates.

    awoo112 1509343

    The culminating effect of this rapid urban growth, and poor housing is the growth of slum areas. The growth has outpaced the rate of housing provision, as well as essential infrastructure, leading to major poverty in urban areas.

    In responding to this issue, the housing needs of low income people, who make up the majority of urban dwellers, need to be clearly understood to adequately plan for them. This would require adequate community consultation, and participation. “Attitudes towards space, use and organization of space, are all linked to cultural traditions, which are often best understood by the local people themselves” (Olotuah & Adesiji, 2005). Urban renewal programmes are essential. Because the residents in the core areas of the city are culturally attached to the land, it would be insensitive and impracticable to embark on total clearance and resettlement programmes.

    Another way to address the issue, alongside of urban renewal strategies, is to focus on arresting the rate of urbanisation. To achieve this, government policies need to consider the provision of qualities facilities (housing, infrastructure) in rural areas as well as in the cities.

    Olotuah, A.O., Adesiji, O.S. (2005) Housing Poverty, Slum formation, and Deviant Behaviour. Nigeria: Federal University of Technology, Akure.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Nigeria has one of the fastest growing populations in the world, which is causing a wide range of planning issues. The rapid urbanisation reflects the deteriorating living and physical environment, urban sprawl, traffic congestion, flooding and erosion present in the country.

    Urban sprawl in Nigeria is characterised by chaotic housing development in the urban structures, where a majority of the structures are without planning permit and are the product of squatters. These areas lack essential social infrastructure such as water, electricity, health care and educational facilities.

    In order to respond to this issue a more integrated approach to land use planning must be applied. This should involve increased public participation in order to plan with the people, not for the people, as a sense of belonging is needed from the communities in order for them to embrace physical planning. Relevant policies also need to be implemented and put into action along with stricter controls and enforcement on land use.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    gbro114 1617766

    ReplyDelete
  6. Nigeria is located in western Africa and has one of the fastest growing populations of the world. One such example of this is the city Lagos, which is currently the seventh fastest growing city in the world. A number of planning issues are inadvertently creates by this expansion including;
    -Urban sprawl encouraging the growth of slum areas
    -Environmental degradation including flooding and erosion
    -Pressure on social and physical infrastructure
    -Traffic congestion
    -Rapidly deteriorating living environment due to overcrowding, causing health problems
    In order to address these issues, there is a need for an integrated strategy approach to land use planning that would take into account the dynamic structure of the people who live in Nigeria and increase public participation. The current plans are ineffective and the solution lies with the people, planning with the people rather than for them in an effort to create a public-private partnership in planning Nigerian cities. Focus on providing quality infrastructure in lower populated areas to encourage growth to spread out rather than concentrate in one area.
    References:
    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208

    ihan007
    1541300

    ReplyDelete
  7. Nigeria has been experiencing rapid urbanization which occurred commonly in major cities like in Lagos and Ibadan. This has brought numerous planning issues like socio-economic problems as well as environmental problems. Particularly they are:
    • Degradation of physical urban environment, including loss of biodiversity, greenhouse warming, desertification, and land and water pollution
    • Overcrowding which has resulted health issues like insanitation
    • Public infrastructure and social services are not adequate
    • Increase of crime and violence rate

    In responding to this issue Nigeria Government has attempted to development concept under the contemporary paradigm which refers to ‘a qualitative improvement in the standard of living of human beings rather than a quantitative increase in the economic indices’ (Jiboye, 2011: 216). Therefore, Lagos has proposed Lagos Mega City Project in order to respond to the issue by clearing and redeveloping slum areas. The project has also attempted to improve public infrastructure by increasing roading infrastructure and creating a vibrant urban environment. I believe what Lagos have done is a good example to assist other cities in Nigeria to produce plans and strategies to control population expansion.


    Mlee243: 1499763

    ADEOYE,A.(2010). Lagos State Geo-information Infrastructure Policy (LAGIS) As a Tool for Mega City Development: Opportunities and Challenges.Nigeria;Lagos State Government

    Jiboye, A. 2011. Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Charlotte Hamilton-Pama 1515604October 1, 2012 at 8:21 PM

    Urbanisation within Nigeria is occurring at a profound rate. A trend, which has placed a great strain on land-use planning frameworks and natural resources within the country i.e. “913,072.64s km of habitable land areas must accommodate (infrastructure, key services) an estimated 140 million Nigerians, a figure which is only growing”. This is because as settlements have become more urbanised, the planning problems present have become more complex. These include:

    • Slum formation
    • Congestion
    • Flooding
    • Accessibility to housing
    • Lack of public infrastructure.

    All of, which are not facilitated or alleviated by Nigeria’s current planning control frameworks e.g. Land use Act of 1978, urban Development Policy of 1992, Urban and Regional Planning Act 1992. As the approach taken by those enlisted above promote disjointed and uncoordinated land use practices. Therefore for land use management to be effective in Nigeria there is a need for a more integrated land use approach. That promotes better coordination between planning policies, and controls, and greater monitoring provisions.

    References:
    Aribigbola, A. 2008. Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    Jiboye, A. 2011. Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    Watson. V. 2009, “Seeing from the south: refocusing, urban planning on the globes central urban issues.” Urban Studies, 46 (11), pp. 2259-2275.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Planning issues caused by expansion in Nigeria.
    -Traffic congestion
    - Environmental degradation
    - Overcrowding and health issues
    - Lack of public infrastructure
    - Urban sprawl
    - Flooding

    By 2025, 60% of Nigeria's population is expected to live in urban areas. This rapid urbanisation echoes the deteriorating environment due to overcrowding and traffic congestion that this population movement is causing.

    Currently Nigeria is trying to fix these issues with out of date planning acts such as the Land Use Planning Act 1978. For Nigeria to expand is a more sustainable and suitable way, new planning acts are needed. These acts should focus on creating strategies and plans that use a more integrated land use approach. Important areas for these acts to focus on would be creating an improved public transport system rather than the current individually owned bus services; and land use development controls that are suited to the environment and are actually achievable.

    References
    Aribigbola, A. 2008. Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    Jiboye, A. 2011. Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Gabrielle Bendig
    1577143

    ReplyDelete
  10. Nigeria is one of the countries experiencing the highest urbanisation in the world. For example Lagos is currently the fifth largest city with a population of 9 million and is estimated to become the third largest by 2015. The planning issues that have resulted include congestion, sprawl, degradation of the environment, over-population which causes health issues and public infrastructure that has yet to catch up.

    There are a number of ways to respond to this issue but a key one to note is good governance. Currently, the governance of Nigeria is top-down. Therefore, there needs to be greater involvement of community groups in local government, greater transparency and accountability in both planning and implementation of local policy as well as establishing an integrated approach to land use management. This includes delegating responsibilities from the national to the local level, going back to grassroots and co-ordinating and monitoring plans.

    Aribigbola, A.(2008). Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    Jiboye, A. (2011). Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Ying Liu
    1617432

    ReplyDelete
  11. Ailish Collins 1674285October 3, 2012 at 1:16 PM

    Nigeria is experiencing rapid population increases which causes further urbanisation of city centres such as Legos. The problems which are associated with a rapidly expanding population in Nigeria include:
    -Overcrowded slum areas with high poverty levels and unhealthy living conditions.
    -Inadequate public facilities and infrastructure.
    -Traffic congestion due to urban sprawl and heavy reliance on cars.
    -Huge disparity between urban and rural living areas due to large scale cities provided with more amenities and resources than other smaller cities and towns.
    -More government representatives in bigger states - lack of consultation and representation by government for people in smaller cities.


    Currently Nigerias system of governance is top down, and there is an obvious need for unity between the different religious groups, the government and its representatives as well as public participation and consultation with the people of Nigeria. This could be achieved through a bottom-up approach, where local government representatives provide equal opportunity for consultation and government representation in all areas. There is also a need for proper management of resources as this is currently seen as creating inequalities and dividing the country whereas the resources should be used to benefit everyone. Also, projects such as the Lagos mega city project could be adopted in other areas in Nigeria. This project was very successful and could be used to create more quality living environments which could result in a more even population spread, rather than everyone locating in a few cities of high amenity.

    acol137

    ReplyDelete
  12. The population of Nigeria is expanding at a rapid rate, the vast majority of this growth is experienced in urban areas. Rapid growth in the urban area is posing a number of planning issues for Nigeria, and these issues require immediate and long term responses.

    Large urban cities, such as Lagos, are perceived as opportunist places to live. People migrate to these places to seek a better life for themselves. Abuja is also experiencing similar population growth (20-30% per year), due its well-known status of capital of Nigeria. Urban development issues in Nigeria are caused by a number of factors. These include diversity issues, different ways of living be it religious or settlement styles, cause major controversy in terms of resource management, infrastructure provision and general ways of living. There is inequality in terms of rich and poor tribes, some have resources to take care of themselves and some don’t. The increased populations experienced in these places cause issues such as:

    • Overcrowding and health issues, natural disasters like flooding effect this,
    • Poor management leads to significant environmental degradation and issues for resource management
    • And also provision of infrastructure issues

    Responses to these issues require input from both federal government and at the local level. Housing needs to cater for the majority population group (being low income earners), and planning needs to suit these people’s needs, “Approach that is pro-poor and inclusive, and that places the creation of livelihoods at the center of planning efforts (Watson. 2009. p. 2260).” Addressing the rate of population expansion within the urban areas needs to be addressed. Overcrowding, poor management, environmental degradation and infrastructure issues will only get worse without planning that addresses these issues. This will require long term planning to tackle and overcome.

    Watson. V. 2009, “Seeing from the south: refocusing, urban planning on the globes central urban issues.” Urban Studies, 46 (11), pp. 2259-2275.

    Craig Mathieson, 1645513

    ReplyDelete
  13. Urbanisation in Nigeria has been expanding rapidly, and is the cause for many severe socio-economic, cultural and environmental planning issues. Currently, many Nigerian cities have urban services which do not keep up with their population growth, resulting in:

    •inadequate planning strategies in general
    •poor housing and infrastructural provisions, causing overcrowded living conditions and traffic congestion
    •the worsening of environmental and health conditions through flooding and drainage problems
    •the increase of crime and insecurity due to high unemployment rates and poverty

    A good response to these adverse issues requires effective governance towards achieving sustainable urbanisation. Establishing and implementing policies which address the issues of urban growth particularly targeted towards poverty, as this is the fundamental problem threating the political, social and environmental stability of cities. In order for this to happen in Nigeria’s top-down governmental system, approaches must consider the greater participation of community groups in Local governance, greater accountability and transparency in the planning and implementation of local plans and policies. This will ensure appropriate decentralisation of power from the national to the local level, thus aiding the effectiveness of implementation on the ground.

    References:
    Ogu. V.I. (2005). Urban Infrastructure development and sustainability in Nigeria. [Online]. Available: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/e1-18-05-05.pdf Accessed 4/10/12.

    Jiboye, A.D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanization: Issues and Challenges for Effective Urban Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    John Yan
    zyan070, 1583674

    ReplyDelete
  14. The growth of Nigeria’s population has expanded at a rapid rate and continues to do so. Consequently, this has led to many planning issues concerning economic challenges, social, cultural and environmental problems. Particular issues that require effective governance and sustainable solutions include:
    -Inadequate shelter or housing leading to a significant increase in slums and urban sprawl
    -There is a lack of effective governance to keep up with the growing population
    -Deteriorating infrastructure that cannot provide services for everyone
    -Traffic congestion
    -Poverty

    To overcome these problems there must be good urban governance. Not only is it important to have a top down approach, which Nigeria currently has, but there also needs to be involvement from the commons. In short, a bottom up approach where grass roots organisations, public participation, consultation and community development to ensure issues are actually solve in a way that meets the local needs.

    Jiboye, A.D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanization: Issues and Challenges for Effective Urban Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(6): 211-224.

    gng017, 1579720.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Vaitaua Mauala, 1559615October 5, 2012 at 1:09 PM

    Nigeria has been experiencing steady population growth within its’ urban centres. One example of this is seen within Lagos City which currently is the most populated urban area in the country, also ranked the third largest city in the world. With an increasing trend of population growth in Lagos City and a planning system that has been unable to adapt sufficiently, urban planning issues continue to intensify.

    Some urban planning issues currently experienced within Lagos City include:
    • Overcrowding
    • A housing market that has led to the creation of informal settlements
    • Lack of adequate infrastructure
    • Congestion
    • Absence of effective governance
    • Wealth inequality

    One way of responding to these issues is through the establishment of effective urban governance. Effective governance would essentially be used to better manage the growth of the city and all the matters which encompass urban living. This would ideally be done through a combination of top-down and bottom-up decision making approaches so as to be more inclusive while also encouraging efficient planning.

    Jiboye, A.D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanization: Issues and Challenges for Effective Urban Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(6): 211-224.
    Oduwaye, L. (2009). Challenges of Sustainable Physical Planning and Development in Metropolitan Lagos. Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(1): 159-171
    vmau007, 1559615

    ReplyDelete
  16. The rapidly expanding urban population in Nigeria has led to many planning issues. This is seen in cities such as Lagos, which is the third most populated city in the world. Some of these planning issues include:

    • Overcrowding which has resulted in health issues especially in slums
    • Environmental degradation including the loss of biodiversity, flooding
    • Inadequate infrastructure and social services to facilitate for the growing population
    • Extreme congestion from the reliance of cars and urban sprawl

    A response to address the numerous issues would be to change the current system of governance to achieve more sustainable urbanisation. The current top-down approach does not have effective public participation and communication between representatives. Therefore, they need to take a bottom up approach which delegates more responsibility to the local level. Better integration is also needed especially in land use planning which encourage coordination between planning policies and the dynamic Nigerian population.

    Reference:
    Jiboye, A. (2011). Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Jessica Parulian - 1598075

    ReplyDelete
  17. Nigeria has one of the fasting growing populations in the world resulting in numerous planning issues surrounding the ability to provide for the increasing population which is having detrimental effects on physical and living environments. The affects of rapid population growth and urbanisation has resulted in an increasing level of urban sprawl, substandard housing, slums, flooding and overcrowding with resultant negative effects on the health and well-being of the population. The strains are also appearing in relation to physical infrastructure provisions which do not have the capacity to cope with growing numbers leading to traffic and congestion problems.
    Current development controls cannot cope with the rate and pressures of the development that is occurring and are ineffective in responding to the developing issues. In response to the issues identified more effective land controls and management need to be put into place in a more integrated approach. Public participation is also an essential process which should be incorporated in both plan formation and decision-making processes, planning with the people not for them. This will better acknowledge the needs of the population and solutions can be facilitated to align with these needs resulting in more productive and sustainable outcomes for the future.

    swil403
    1666568

    Reference:
    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    Aribigbola, A. 2008. Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    ReplyDelete
  18. Liam Clark (1461140)October 9, 2012 at 1:28 PM

    The population of Nigeria is rapidly increasing by 2.52% annually. This massive population increase has created a deteriorated natural and human living environment in major Nigerian cities such as Lagos in the form of slums, urban sprawl,squatter settlements,traffic congestion, flooding, erosion and overcrowding which are not sustainable and contribute to negativities such as an increased mortality rate.

    In order to solve the problems in this developing country, it must be accepted by the overall population that government resources are scarce and limited and that urban areas in need of attention are unlimited. Nigeria is currently using outdated legislation such as the Land Use Act 1978 to combat urban negativity. Based on this, new government legislation should be created that increases public participation and collaboration with the government using the top down bottom up approach which allows planning to reach a more local level. This will better acknowledge the needs of the general population and positive solutions to these needs can be generated to create a more sustainable Nigeria for the future.

    Aribigbola, A. 2008. Improving urban land use planning and management in Nigeria: The case of Akure. Theoretical and Empirical Researches in Urban Management. 3(9): 1-14.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    ISS. 2003. Nigeria. [Online]. ISS. Available: http://www.iss.co.za/af/profiles/nigeria/population.html. [Accessed 6/10/12].

    ReplyDelete
  19. Zoeya Kamal - 1462661October 9, 2012 at 2:48 PM

    Nigeria has one of the fastest growing populations in the world. Lagos city in Nigeria alone is known to be the seventh fastest growing city in the wold. It has been estimated that by 2025, 60% of Nigeria's population is expected to live in urban areas. This increase in population has led to several issues. These being:

    - Flooding
    - Urban sprawl
    - Traffic Congestion
    - Environmental degradation
    - Pressure on both social and physical infrastructure
    - Health problems caused by deteriorating living conditions.

    These issues must be addressed immediately in order to help sustain and improve current conditions. At present, it is the officials that plan for the people and they do what they want to do without the input of the people. This has had a negative impact on the country as a whole. The best way to mitigate these issues is by integrating strategies, policies and encouraging public participation in order to create some sort of public-private partnership. It is also important that the needs of the people be identified and focus given on improving and providing quality infrastructure.

    References:
    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208

    ReplyDelete
  20. pbro820
    ID: 5971615

    Nigeria is a prime example of a Third World country that has experienced significant levels of urbanisation during the past half century. Currently the Nigerian city Lagos is the fifth largest in the world, however it is projected that by 2015 it will be the third largest. Population expansion of this magnitude presents various planning issues, with the general issue stemming from the lack of resources to meet the demands of locals. These issues include:

    -Overcrowding and the diseases that can easily spread in this environment
    -Crime and violence
    -Pollution (of land, air, water)
    -Environmental degradation, as people make space for settlements

    There are many more issues that have been caused by urbanisation (specifically relating to the economic well-being of the nation), however it is important that planning firstly addresses the more pressing social issues mentioned above. This can be done by operating within a governance system that is inclusive and encourages public participation. This means that Nigeria would have to abandon its previous top down approach to policy and seek a more transparent system that grants more power to NGOs and community groups.

    Reference:
    Jiboye, A. (2011). Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Overpopulation is one of Nigeria’s biggest problems. Coupled with uncontrolled and unplanned urban areas, a rapidly expanding population has caused serious socio-economic, cultural and environmental problems including:

    - Inadequate housing to meet demand
    - Congestion and pollution
    - Poverty
    - Environmental degradation
    - Lack of adequate infrastructure

    In order to cope with population increases while also ensuring the health and wellbeing of inhabitants and the environment, Nigeria needs an effective governance structure. Currently, a top-down approach is being used which has proven to be inefficient in meeting community needs. Only by establishing a structure which develops and executes effective plans and strategies, takes into account local needs, and adopts an integrated land use approach, will Nigeria be equipped to cope with population expansion.

    Reference:
    Jiboye, A. (2011) 'Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria'. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Raheel Khan - 1539665

    ReplyDelete
  22. Nigera as a nation has experienced a great shift in populations from rural to urban areas, a shift which is continuing to accelerate along with an ever increasing population. This has led to great pressures being placed on urban areas and as such has led to problems such as substandard housing, lack of infrastructure, slum developments, transportation problems e.g. congestion, poverty and crime. In meeting these challenges sustainable development initiatives could be undertaken within urban areas through various plans, policies and strategies focusing on land regulation and integration, participatory urban management, support for the urban informal sector and rural development. Possible discourse may arise however due to the various cultures present throughout the nation which may hold different values and beliefs with regards to urban planning. As such, these plans, policies and strategies should be developed and implemented through a more ‘bottom up’ approach in which they may be tailored to a specific area with a distinct culture rather than a ‘one size fits all approach’.

    Reference:
    Lawanson, T.O. (2006) Challenges of Sustainability and Urban Development in Nigeria: Reviewing the Millennium Development Goals. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria.

    Sunit Patel
    1473264

    ReplyDelete
  23. The forever increasing rate of urban growth in Nigeria poses the usual expected planning issues with the vast migration from rural to urban settlements. Often seen in recently developing countries around the world, there is a serious lack of infrastructure to support the increase in inhabitants, crime, poverty, disease, pollution often resides in these areas. With little indication of a decrease in the growth rate currently estimated to be 4.8% per annum, urgent and radical planning initiatives must be initiated in order to mitigate the adverse effects of the current and future activities. The implementation of the Millennium Development Goals in year 2000, set eight major goals for increased living conditions. These goals including:
    • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • Achieve universal primary education
    • Promote gender equality and empower women
    • Reduce child mortality
    • Improve maternal health
    • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    • Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Develop a global partnership for development.
    These goals can be applied to the situation in Nigeria and have been applied through various mechanisms. Due to the incredibly diverse population of Nigeria, which has formulated a history of segregation between different ancestors and religions, governance in Nigeria is difficult to implement effectively due to the historically switching government often changing from military to democratic. In order for any planning initiatives to make a significant impact, a bottom up approach must be taken in policy and decision making processes.
    ssti017 1506222
    Jiboye, A. (2011). Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    ReplyDelete
  24. As mentioned, Nigeria's urban population has been, and is likely to continue to grow at an unprecedented rate.

    this urbanization is occuring at such a rapid rate that cities subjected to it are often unprepared. That is, do not have a sufficient economic, social, or environmental base in order to cope with the rapid influx of people in search of work and places to live. this leads to high unemployment, unhealthy living conditions and social strife for the new urban migrants, and contributes to urban sprawl, environmental degredation, and generally poorer living conditions throughout the whole of the city.

    This phenomenon poses planning challenges not only for urban areas. Rural areas are often 'abandoned' by the most able residents in search of work and a new life, in this way the rural economy suffers, making urban life seem even more enticing by comparison, futher fuelling rural-to-urban migration.

    I might respond to this issue by conducting consultation research to find the fundamental reasons why people choose to pursue an urban lifestlye as opposed to an urban one, and attempt to integrate some of the benefits that come from urban development into rural areas, even if its is through direct funding from city-generated capital. For as long as the population views urban living as a better alternative, they will continue to do what they believe is best for themselves and their families.

    O. K. Kadiri (2006). Planning Sustainable and Liveable Cities in Nigeria. Research Journal of Social Sciences 1(1) pages 40-50

    D. Antai, T. Moradi (2010) Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(6) pages 877-883

    Matthew T.W. Youl 1583666

    ReplyDelete
  25. Jason van Niekerk, 1510475October 10, 2012 at 1:51 PM

    Nigeria is located in the North-Western part of Africa, and being one of the major economic powerhouses in the continent it has experienced a major increase in its urban population as people attempt to make a future for themselves in the cities. As the cities expand, they absorb the surrounding areas with the residents becoming part of the urban environment.

    This rapid expansion of the urban population has resulted in the creation of slums, squatters, urban sprawl, congestion, lack of services, and an increase in erosion and flooding.

    The national and local authorities in Nigeria do not have the resources to initiate a master plan that will stem this growth, or at least fight the effects of it. Therefore they need to work on a smaller scale. While this means that the issue will stay around for longer, at least the authorities will be doing something. One way in which they can work on a smaller scale is by communicating with developers and locals and choosing a parcel of land which could be developed. The government could then work in partnership with developers and the local people to provide what they need.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208

    Jvan177, 1510475

    ReplyDelete
  26. Nigeria Is the most populous country in Africa and the tenth in the world. The Population Reference Bureaus estimated total population of the country will increase from 158 million in 2010 to 389 million. The rapid growth in population brought a series of planning issues:

    To Urbanisation
    - About 50% live in urban areas, will be 75% in 2050
    - Most of the expected population growth will be in urban areas
    - The effect of rapid population growth in urban areas - poverty - over 60% of urban residents live in informal settlements

    T o Natural Resources and infrastructure
    - High population growth increases demand for natural resources like water as well as social infrastructure
    - Nigeria is 1 of the 15 countries in SSA suffering from water scarcity or stress

    To Health
    - High population density and urbanisation drive infectious disease spread
    - Frequent overlap among countries with youthful population, high HIV prevalence and low access to family planning

    To Security and Governance
    - Population, an underlying variable for conflict
    - Large youth bulge, high youth unemployment rates makes young Nigerians more susceptible for recruitment into insurgencies
    - Internal migration and population growth differentials within the geo-political divide have often been implicated in political destabilization


    Reference:
    Population Action International, 2012. Nigeria: Population and Demographic trends. The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington DC, April 25 2012.


    bche086 1540113

    ReplyDelete
  27. The large population implies a large market for goods and services as well as a large pool of human resources for development. However, the impact of population on development depends not only on the absolute size but also on its quality. Countries like Thailand have shown that there can be no economic growth without reduction in population. Therefore some policy considerations should be given:
    - Young population can be an asset if investment in Nigerian youths is prioritized- education, jobs, infrastructure and health care
    - Institutions and frameworks should integrate population dynamics in both national and foreign policy planning
    - Improvement in social services is key
    - Nigeria population growth: opportunity or challenge?

    ReplyDelete
  28. Nigerias urban population is expanding rapidly, creating significant planning issues as a result. Some of these issues include inadequate infrastructure – especially transport, resulting in environmental degradation, poverty, crime and insufficient housing resulting in overcrowding and slum areas. With the rapidly increasing population, initiatives need to be put in place in order to eliminate or reduce the effects.
    These initiatives could include a more integrated approach to land use planning as current planning initiatives have been unsuccessful. A focus on planning at a more local level, sustainable development objectives, the coordination of plans and policies and a primary focus on implementing and monitoring would see the rapid growth in Nigeria being planned for more efficiently and effectively
    Jiboye, A. (2011) 'Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria'. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.
    enea007 1519541

    ReplyDelete
  29. Nigeria has been experiencing rapid population growth, especially in the urban areas which are creating serious planning issues. Some of these issues include;

    -Overcrowding, poor living conditions and pollution resulting in various health issues
    -Inadequate social and physical infrastructure/ services
    -High rate of environmental deterioration

    In order to address these issues there must be a change in the current governance system. The planning system should use sustainable development objectives as the fundamental base when formulating and implementing plans and policies and a more effective collaborative approach. There is also the issue of severe poverty in Nigeria (60% of the Nigerian population lives below the poverty line) which threatens the political stability, social structure and environmental balance especially in the over populated urban areas. A high priority must be set in reducing poverty in the planning system and must seek higher involvement of NGOs and community groups with local government.

    Jiboye, A. (2011) 'Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria'. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    kpar140
    1548668

    ReplyDelete
  30. Nigeria is expected to be one of the countries that had largest increases in urban population over the next 4 decades, with another 200 million to its urban population. This rapid urbanization expanding has caused numerous socio-economic and environmental issues, for example:
    • Poor housing and infrastructure provision
    • Bad environmental and health conditions
    • Increasing unemployment and crime
    • Traffic congestion

    Refers to the actual previously situation in China, controlling the rate of population expansion within urban areas is a long-term goal that requires long-term government policy. Therefore, as a planner, a way to resolve these issues within a short-time period is urgent since some of the citizens cannot wait for a long-term solution. Regarding to the housing problem, a good response would be finding a suitable and sustainable way of design the buildings and houses. Planners and urban designers should design for most of the citizens and give specific care to the particular groups, such as low-income people, the youth and old people. Better planning theory that allows more people living in a healthier environment is the only way to change the current housing situation in Nigeria, in a short-term period.

    Jiboye, A.D. (2011). Sustainable Urbanization: Issues and Challenges for Effective Urban Governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4(6): 211-224.
    Watson. V. 2009, “Seeing from the south: refocusing, urban planning on the globes central urban issues.” Urban Studies, 46 (11), pp. 2259-2275.

    khu009 1538849

    ReplyDelete
  31. Matthew Zochowski (5333365)October 16, 2012 at 4:10 PM

    Due to Nigeria’s rapid urbanization over the past three decades, the country is now faced with a number of classic issues that are inherent in developing nations. Overpopulation, especially in Lagos and other southern cities has created overcrowding and with a lack of affordable housing, has resulted in the creation of slums. Additional problems include inadequate sanitation, traffic congestion, an increase in crime, environmental degradation and pollution, flooding, lack of infrastructure, and more.

    In response to these many issues, it is imperative that Nigeria also diversifies its economy away from the oil sector, which accounts for 80% of government income. In the process of diversifying, it should provide employment opportunities in places other than just Lagos. New growth should be positioned in mixed geographical areas which would alleviate the overpopulation problems. Existing informal slums should be formalized and new job opportunities should be created in the area. Other solutions include decreasing the fertility rate, improving transportation within urban areas, and fostering new job opportunities.

    Jiboye, A. (2011). Sustainable urbanisation: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development. 4(6): 211-224.

    Olujimi, J. 2009. Evolving a planning strategy for managing urban sprawl in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology, 25(3): 201-208.

    Bloomberg.com (2011). Nigeria’s Oil Revenue Rose 46% to $59 Billion. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-04-14/nigeria-s-oil-revenue-rose-46-to-59-billion-in-2010-on-improved-security.html [Accessed: 9 Oct 2012].

    ReplyDelete
  32. Currently Nigeria system of governance is top down, and there is an obvious need for unity between the different religious groups, the government and its representatives as well as public participation and consultation with the people of Nigeria.

    ReplyDelete